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Re: Fwd: extended asm

well i have got most of the things. but somewhat not
very clear with this line:

"uses the same hard register for "d" and "b"."

what do u actually mean by same hard register? and
there is any concept of stack exists here? well it is
grabage value in d that i am able to understand but i
was thinking if there is some concept of stack
existing in these operands then there must be some
specific value in this d register

thanks a lot


 --- Zack Weinberg <> wrote: 
> Ankit Jain <> writes:
> > "The compiler does not interpret the "movb %3,%0"
> part of this asm
> > statement, except to substitute %-escapes when
> writing out the .s
> > file." what is this .s file?  what do u mean by
> that compiler dont
> > interpret the instruction?
> When you compile a C program to an executable, the
> command line 
> $ gcc test.c
> invokes four programs: the "driver", whose job is
> simply to hand off
> control to the other three; the "compiler", which
> reads the C program
> and translates it to assembly language; the
> "assembler", which reads
> the assembly-language translation and converts it to
> machine code; and
> the "linker", which reformats the machine code into
> an executable
> file.
> The "compiler" part has only limited understanding
> of an asm().  It
> understands the constraints, but it passes the
> assembly language
> string directly to the assembler (substituting
> operands).  It doesn't
> know that your assembly language string is only
> touching two of the
> operands.  It believes you when you say both "c" and
> "d" are given new
> values in the asm statement.
> Because it believes you, it thinks it's free to do
> other things with
> the registers for "c" and "d" before the asm
> statement.  For instance,
> it sees that "d" is set to 0 and then immediately
> set again by the
> asm, so it throws away the assignment of 0 -- and
> uses the same hard
> register for "d" and "b".
> > now my question was when i have moved only one
> value i.e b->c then d
> > is also initialised with some value.
> And your answer is, because you claimed to have
> initialized d with
> some value, it stuck something else in the 'd'
> register before the
> asm() statement, and you're seeing that value
> because you didn't live
> up to your claim.
> (Tangentially - even if you *had* written two move
> instructions, it
> would not be sufficient to prevent this sort of
> thing happening; GCC
> assumes that an asm statement consumes all its
> inputs before writing
> any of its outputs.  The safest way to avoid this is
> to write exactly
> one asm instruction per asm() statement.  If for
> some reason you can't
> do that, there is a notion of "earlyclobber" - check
> the manual for
> details.)
> zw

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