Prerequisites for GCC

GCC requires that various tools and packages be available for use in the build procedure. Modifying GCC sources requires additional tools described below.

Tools/packages necessary for building GCC

ISO C++11 compiler

Necessary to bootstrap GCC. GCC 4.8.3 or newer has sufficient support for used C++11 features.

Versions of GCC prior to 11 also allow bootstrapping with an ISO C++98 compiler, and versions of GCC prior to 4.8 also allow bootstrapping with an ISO C89 compiler.

To build all languages in a cross-compiler or other configuration where 3-stage bootstrap is not performed, you need to start with an existing GCC binary (version 4.8.3 or later) because source code for language frontends other than C might use GCC extensions.

C standard library and headers

In order to build GCC, the C standard library and headers must be present for all target variants for which target libraries will be built (and not only the variant of the host C++ compiler).

This affects the popular ‘x86_64-pc-linux-gnu’ platform (among other multilib targets), for which 64-bit (‘x86_64’) and 32-bit (‘i386’) libc headers are usually packaged separately. If you do a build of a native compiler on ‘x86_64-pc-linux-gnu’, make sure you either have the 32-bit libc developer package properly installed (the exact name of the package depends on your distro) or you must build GCC as a 64-bit only compiler by configuring with the option --disable-multilib. Otherwise, you may encounter an error such as ‘fatal error: gnu/stubs-32.h: No such file

Python

If you configure a RISC-V compiler with the option --with-arch and the specified architecture string is non-canonical, then you will need python installed on the build system.

GNAT

In order to build GNAT, the Ada compiler, you need a working GNAT compiler (GCC version 5.1 or later).

This includes GNAT tools such as gnatmake and gnatlink, since the Ada front end is written in Ada and uses some GNAT-specific extensions.

In order to build a cross compiler, it is strongly recommended to install the new compiler as native first, and then use it to build the cross compiler. Other native compiler versions may work but this is not guaranteed and will typically fail with hard to understand compilation errors during the build.

Similarly, it is strongly recommended to use an older version of GNAT to build GNAT. More recent versions of GNAT than the version built are not guaranteed to work and will often fail during the build with compilation errors.

Note that configure does not test whether the GNAT installation works and has a sufficiently recent version; if too old a GNAT version is installed and --enable-languages=ada is used, the build will fail.

ADA_INCLUDE_PATH and ADA_OBJECT_PATH environment variables must not be set when building the Ada compiler, the Ada tools, or the Ada runtime libraries. You can check that your build environment is clean by verifying that ‘gnatls -v’ lists only one explicit path in each section.

GDC

In order to build GDC, the D compiler, you need a working GDC compiler (GCC version 9.4 or later) and D runtime library, ‘libphobos’, as the D front end is written in D.

Versions of GDC prior to 12 can be built with an ISO C++11 compiler, which can then be installed and used to bootstrap newer versions of the D front end.

It is strongly recommended to use an older version of GDC to build GDC. More recent versions of GDC than the version built are not guaranteed to work and will often fail during the build with compilation errors relating to deprecations or removed features.

Note that configure does not test whether the GDC installation works and has a sufficiently recent version. Though the implementation of the D front end does not make use of any GDC-specific extensions, or novel features of the D language, if too old a GDC version is installed and --enable-languages=d is used, the build will fail.

On some targets, ‘libphobos’ isn’t enabled by default, but compiles and works if --enable-libphobos is used. Specifics are documented for affected targets.

GM2

Python3 is required if you want to build the complete Modula-2 documentation including the target SYSTEM definition module. If Python3 is unavailable Modula-2 documentation will include a target independent version of the SYSTEM modules.

A “working” POSIX compatible shell, or GNU bash

Necessary when running configure because some /bin/sh shells have bugs and may crash when configuring the target libraries. In other cases, /bin/sh or ksh have disastrous corner-case performance problems. This can cause target configure runs to literally take days to complete in some cases.

So on some platforms /bin/ksh is sufficient, on others it isn’t. See the host/target specific instructions for your platform, or use bash to be sure. Then set CONFIG_SHELL in your environment to your “good” shell prior to running configure/make.

zsh is not a fully compliant POSIX shell and will not work when configuring GCC.

A POSIX or SVR4 awk

Necessary for creating some of the generated source files for GCC. If in doubt, use a recent GNU awk version.

GNU binutils

Necessary in some circumstances, optional in others. See the host/target specific instructions for your platform for the exact requirements.

Note binutils 2.35 or newer is required for LTO to work correctly with GNU libtool that includes doing a bootstrap with LTO enabled.

gzip version 1.2.4 (or later) or
bzip2 version 1.0.2 (or later)

Necessary to uncompress GCC tar files when source code is obtained via HTTPS mirror sites.

GNU make version 3.80 (or later)

You must have GNU make installed to build GCC.

GNU tar version 1.14 (or later)

Necessary (only on some platforms) to untar the source code. Many systems’ tar programs will also work, only try GNU tar if you have problems.

Perl version 5.6.1 (or later)

Necessary when targeting Darwin, building ‘libstdc++’, and not using --disable-symvers. Necessary when targeting Solaris with Solaris ld and not using --disable-symvers.

Necessary when regenerating Makefile dependencies in libiberty. Necessary when regenerating libiberty/functions.texi. Necessary when generating manpages from Texinfo manuals. Used by various scripts to generate some files included in the source repository (mainly Unicode-related and rarely changing) from source tables.

Used by automake.

If available, enables parallel testing of ‘libgomp’ in case that flock is not available.

Several support libraries are necessary to build GCC, some are required, others optional. While any sufficiently new version of required tools usually work, library requirements are generally stricter. Newer versions may work in some cases, but it’s safer to use the exact versions documented. We appreciate bug reports about problems with newer versions, though. If your OS vendor provides packages for the support libraries then using those packages may be the simplest way to install the libraries.

GNU Multiple Precision Library (GMP) version 4.3.2 (or later)

Necessary to build GCC. It can be downloaded from https://gmplib.org/. If a GMP source distribution is found in a subdirectory of your GCC sources named gmp, it will be built together with GCC. Alternatively, if GMP is already installed but it is not in your library search path, you will have to configure with the --with-gmp configure option. See also --with-gmp-lib and --with-gmp-include. The in-tree build is only supported with the GMP version that download_prerequisites installs.

MPFR Library version 3.1.0 (or later)

Necessary to build GCC. It can be downloaded from https://www.mpfr.org. If an MPFR source distribution is found in a subdirectory of your GCC sources named mpfr, it will be built together with GCC. Alternatively, if MPFR is already installed but it is not in your default library search path, the --with-mpfr configure option should be used. See also --with-mpfr-lib and --with-mpfr-include. The in-tree build is only supported with the MPFR version that download_prerequisites installs.

MPC Library version 1.0.1 (or later)

Necessary to build GCC. It can be downloaded from https://www.multiprecision.org/mpc/. If an MPC source distribution is found in a subdirectory of your GCC sources named mpc, it will be built together with GCC. Alternatively, if MPC is already installed but it is not in your default library search path, the --with-mpc configure option should be used. See also --with-mpc-lib and --with-mpc-include. The in-tree build is only supported with the MPC version that download_prerequisites installs.

isl Library version 0.15 or later.

Necessary to build GCC with the Graphite loop optimizations. It can be downloaded from https://gcc.gnu.org/pub/gcc/infrastructure/. If an isl source distribution is found in a subdirectory of your GCC sources named isl, it will be built together with GCC. Alternatively, the --with-isl configure option should be used if isl is not installed in your default library search path.

zstd Library.

Necessary to build GCC with zstd compression used for LTO bytecode. The library is searched in your default library patch search. Alternatively, the --with-zstd configure option should be used.

Python3 modules

The complete list of Python3 modules broken down by GCC subcomponent is shown below:

internal debugging in gdbhooks

gdb, gdb.printing, gdb.types, os.path, re, sys and tempfile,

g++ testsuite

gcov, gzip, json, os and pytest.

SARIF testsuite

Tests of SARIF output will use the check-jsonschema program from the check-jsonschema module (if available) to validate generated .sarif files. If this tool is not found, the validation parts of those tests are skipped.

c++ cxx api generation

csv, os, sys and time.

modula-2 documentation

argparse, os, pathlib, shutil and sys.

git developer tools

os and sys.

ada documentation

latex_elements, os, pygments, re, sys and time.

GNU gettext

Necessary to build GCC with internationalization support via --enable-nls. It can be downloaded from https://www.gnu.org/software/gettext/. If a GNU gettext distribution is found in a subdirectory of your GCC sources named gettext, it will be built together with GCC, unless present in the system (either in libc or as a stand-alone library).

The in-tree configuration requires GNU gettext version 0.22 or later.

Tools/packages necessary for modifying GCC

autoconf version 2.69
GNU m4 version 1.4.6 (or later)

Necessary when modifying configure.ac, aclocal.m4, etc. to regenerate configure and config.in files.

automake version 1.15.1

Necessary when modifying a Makefile.am file to regenerate its associated Makefile.in.

Much of GCC does not use automake, so directly edit the Makefile.in file. Specifically this applies to the gcc, intl, libcpp, libiberty, libobjc directories as well as any of their subdirectories.

For directories that use automake, GCC requires the latest release in the 1.15 series, which is currently 1.15.1. When regenerating a directory to a newer version, please update all the directories using an older 1.15 to the latest released version.

gettext version 0.14.5 (or later)

Needed to regenerate gcc.pot.

gperf version 2.7.2 (or later)

Necessary when modifying gperf input files, e.g. gcc/cp/cfns.gperf to regenerate its associated header file, e.g. gcc/cp/cfns.h.

DejaGnu version 1.5.3 (or later)
Expect
Tcl

Necessary to run the GCC testsuite; see the section on testing for details.

autogen version 5.5.4 (or later) and
guile version 1.4.1 (or later)

Necessary to regenerate fixinc/fixincl.x from fixinc/inclhack.def and fixinc/*.tpl.

Necessary to run ‘make check’ for fixinc.

Necessary to regenerate the top level Makefile.in file from Makefile.tpl and Makefile.def.

Necessary to regenerate the bits/version.h header for libstdc++.

Flex version 2.5.4 (or later)

Necessary when modifying *.l files.

Necessary to build GCC during development because the generated output files are not included in the version-controlled source repository. They are included in releases.

Texinfo version 4.7 (or later)

Necessary for running makeinfo when modifying *.texi files to test your changes.

Necessary for running make dvi, make pdf, or make html to create formatted documentation. Texinfo version 4.8 or later is required for make pdf.

Necessary to build GCC documentation in info format during development because the generated output files are not included in the repository. (They are included in release tarballs.)

Note that the minimum requirement is for a very old version of Texinfo, but recent versions of Texinfo produce better-quality output, especially for HTML format. The version of Texinfo packaged with any current operating system distribution is likely to be adequate for building the documentation without error, but you may still want to install a newer release to get the best appearance and usability of the generated manuals.

TeX (any working version)

Necessary for running texi2dvi and texi2pdf, which are used when running make dvi or make pdf to create DVI or PDF files, respectively.

Sphinx version 1.0 (or later)

Necessary to regenerate jit/docs/_build/texinfo from the .rst files in the directories below jit/docs.

git (any version)
SSH (any version)

Necessary to access the source repository. Public releases and weekly snapshots of the development sources are also available via HTTPS.

GNU diffutils version 2.7 (or later)

Useful when submitting patches for the GCC source code.

patch version 2.5.4 (or later)

Necessary when applying patches, created with diff, to one’s own sources.


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