[PATCH v2] c++: Catch indirect change of active union member in constexpr [PR101631]

Nathaniel Shead nathanieloshead@gmail.com
Fri Sep 1 12:22:34 GMT 2023


On Wed, Aug 30, 2023 at 04:28:18PM -0400, Jason Merrill wrote:
> On 8/29/23 09:35, Nathaniel Shead wrote:
> > This is an attempt to improve the constexpr machinery's handling of
> > union lifetime by catching more cases that cause UB. Is this approach
> > OK?
> > 
> > I'd also like some feedback on a couple of pain points with this
> > implementation; in particular, is there a good way to detect if a type
> > has a non-deleted trivial constructor? I've used 'is_trivially_xible' in
> > this patch, but that also checks for a trivial destructor which by my
> > reading of [class.union.general]p5 is possibly incorrect. Checking for a
> > trivial default constructor doesn't seem too hard but I couldn't find a
> > good way of checking if that constructor is deleted.
> 
> I guess the simplest would be
> 
> (TYPE_HAS_TRIVIAL_DFLT (t) && locate_ctor (t))
> 
> because locate_ctor returns null for a deleted default ctor.  It would be
> good to make this a separate predicate.
> 
> > I'm also generally unsatisfied with the additional complexity with the
> > third 'refs' argument in 'cxx_eval_store_expression' being pushed and
> > popped; would it be better to replace this with a vector of some
> > specific structure type for the data that needs to be passed on?
> 
> Perhaps, but what you have here is fine.  Another possibility would be to
> just have a vec of the refs and extract the index from the ref later as
> needed.
> 
> Jason
> 

Thanks for the feedback. I've kept the refs as-is for now. I've also
cleaned up a couple of other typos I'd had with comments and diagnostics.

Bootstrapped and regtested on x86_64-pc-linux-gnu.

-- 8< --

This patch adds checks for attempting to change the active member of a
union by methods other than a member access expression.

To be able to properly distinguish `*(&u.a) = ` from `u.a = `, this
patch redoes the solution for c++/59950 to avoid extranneous *&; it
seems that the only case that needed the workaround was when copying
empty classes.

Additionally, this patch ensures that constructors for a union field
mark that field as the active member before entering the call itself;
this ensures that modifications of the field within the constructor's
body don't cause false positives (as these will not appear to be member
access expressions). This means that we no longer need to start the
lifetime of empty union members after the constructor body completes.

	PR c++/101631

gcc/cp/ChangeLog:

	* call.cc (build_over_call): Fold more indirect refs for trivial
	assignment op.
	* class.cc (type_has_non_deleted_trivial_default_ctor): Create.
	* constexpr.cc (cxx_eval_call_expression): Start lifetime of
	union member before entering constructor.
	(cxx_eval_store_expression): Check for accessing inactive union
	member indirectly.
	* cp-tree.h (type_has_non_deleted_trivial_default_ctor):
	Forward declare.

gcc/testsuite/ChangeLog:

	* g++.dg/cpp2a/constexpr-union2.C: New test.
	* g++.dg/cpp2a/constexpr-union3.C: New test.
	* g++.dg/cpp2a/constexpr-union4.C: New test.
	* g++.dg/cpp2a/constexpr-union5.C: New test.

Signed-off-by: Nathaniel Shead <nathanieloshead@gmail.com>
---
 gcc/cp/call.cc                                |  11 +-
 gcc/cp/class.cc                               |   8 ++
 gcc/cp/constexpr.cc                           | 105 ++++++++++++------
 gcc/cp/cp-tree.h                              |   1 +
 gcc/testsuite/g++.dg/cpp2a/constexpr-union2.C |  30 +++++
 gcc/testsuite/g++.dg/cpp2a/constexpr-union3.C |  45 ++++++++
 gcc/testsuite/g++.dg/cpp2a/constexpr-union4.C |  29 +++++
 gcc/testsuite/g++.dg/cpp2a/constexpr-union5.C |  55 +++++++++
 8 files changed, 246 insertions(+), 38 deletions(-)
 create mode 100644 gcc/testsuite/g++.dg/cpp2a/constexpr-union2.C
 create mode 100644 gcc/testsuite/g++.dg/cpp2a/constexpr-union3.C
 create mode 100644 gcc/testsuite/g++.dg/cpp2a/constexpr-union4.C
 create mode 100644 gcc/testsuite/g++.dg/cpp2a/constexpr-union5.C

diff --git a/gcc/cp/call.cc b/gcc/cp/call.cc
index 23e458d3252..3372c88f182 100644
--- a/gcc/cp/call.cc
+++ b/gcc/cp/call.cc
@@ -10358,10 +10358,7 @@ build_over_call (struct z_candidate *cand, int flags, tsubst_flags_t complain)
 	   && DECL_OVERLOADED_OPERATOR_IS (fn, NOP_EXPR)
 	   && trivial_fn_p (fn))
     {
-      /* Don't use cp_build_fold_indirect_ref, op= returns an lvalue even if
-	 the object argument isn't one.  */
-      tree to = cp_build_indirect_ref (input_location, argarray[0],
-				       RO_ARROW, complain);
+      tree to = cp_build_fold_indirect_ref (argarray[0]);
       tree type = TREE_TYPE (to);
       tree as_base = CLASSTYPE_AS_BASE (type);
       tree arg = argarray[1];
@@ -10369,7 +10366,11 @@ build_over_call (struct z_candidate *cand, int flags, tsubst_flags_t complain)
 
       if (is_really_empty_class (type, /*ignore_vptr*/true))
 	{
-	  /* Avoid copying empty classes.  */
+	  /* Avoid copying empty classes, but ensure op= returns an lvalue even
+	     if the object argument isn't one. This isn't needed in other cases
+	     since MODIFY_EXPR is always considered an lvalue.  */
+	  to = cp_build_addr_expr (to, tf_none);
+	  to = cp_build_indirect_ref (input_location, to, RO_ARROW, complain);
 	  val = build2 (COMPOUND_EXPR, type, arg, to);
 	  suppress_warning (val, OPT_Wunused);
 	}
diff --git a/gcc/cp/class.cc b/gcc/cp/class.cc
index 778759237dc..43898dabbe7 100644
--- a/gcc/cp/class.cc
+++ b/gcc/cp/class.cc
@@ -5651,6 +5651,14 @@ type_has_virtual_destructor (tree type)
   return (dtor && DECL_VIRTUAL_P (dtor));
 }
 
+/* True iff class TYPE has a non-deleted trivial default
+   constructor.  */
+
+bool type_has_non_deleted_trivial_default_ctor (tree type)
+{
+  return TYPE_HAS_TRIVIAL_DFLT (type) && locate_ctor (type);
+}
+
 /* Returns true iff T, a class, has a move-assignment or
    move-constructor.  Does not lazily declare either.
    If USER_P is false, any move function will do.  If it is true, the
diff --git a/gcc/cp/constexpr.cc b/gcc/cp/constexpr.cc
index 8bd5c4a47f8..b82e87be974 100644
--- a/gcc/cp/constexpr.cc
+++ b/gcc/cp/constexpr.cc
@@ -3141,40 +3141,34 @@ cxx_eval_call_expression (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, tree t,
 	    cxx_set_object_constness (ctx, new_obj, /*readonly_p=*/false,
 				      non_constant_p, overflow_p);
 
+	  /* If this is a constructor, we are beginning the lifetime of the
+	     object we are initialising.  */
+	  if (new_obj
+	      && DECL_CONSTRUCTOR_P (fun)
+	      && TREE_CODE (new_obj) == COMPONENT_REF
+	      && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (TREE_OPERAND (new_obj, 0))) == UNION_TYPE)
+	    {
+	      tree activate = build2 (INIT_EXPR, TREE_TYPE (new_obj),
+				      new_obj,
+				      build_constructor (TREE_TYPE (new_obj),
+							 NULL));
+	      cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, activate,
+					    lval, non_constant_p, overflow_p);
+	      ggc_free (activate);
+	    }
+
 	  tree jump_target = NULL_TREE;
 	  cxx_eval_constant_expression (&call_ctx, body,
 					vc_discard, non_constant_p, overflow_p,
 					&jump_target);
 
 	  if (DECL_CONSTRUCTOR_P (fun))
-	    {
-	      /* This can be null for a subobject constructor call, in
-		 which case what we care about is the initialization
-		 side-effects rather than the value.  We could get at the
-		 value by evaluating *this, but we don't bother; there's
-		 no need to put such a call in the hash table.  */
-	      result = lval ? ctx->object : ctx->ctor;
-
-	      /* If we've just evaluated a subobject constructor call for an
-		 empty union member, it might not have produced a side effect
-		 that actually activated the union member.  So produce such a
-		 side effect now to ensure the union appears initialized.  */
-	      if (!result && new_obj
-		  && TREE_CODE (new_obj) == COMPONENT_REF
-		  && TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE
-				(TREE_OPERAND (new_obj, 0))) == UNION_TYPE
-		  && is_really_empty_class (TREE_TYPE (new_obj),
-					    /*ignore_vptr*/false))
-		{
-		  tree activate = build2 (MODIFY_EXPR, TREE_TYPE (new_obj),
-					  new_obj,
-					  build_constructor (TREE_TYPE (new_obj),
-							     NULL));
-		  cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, activate, lval,
-						non_constant_p, overflow_p);
-		  ggc_free (activate);
-		}
-	    }
+	    /* This can be null for a subobject constructor call, in
+	       which case what we care about is the initialization
+	       side-effects rather than the value.  We could get at the
+	       value by evaluating *this, but we don't bother; there's
+	       no need to put such a call in the hash table.  */
+	    result = lval ? ctx->object : ctx->ctor;
 	  else if (VOID_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (res)))
 	    result = void_node;
 	  else
@@ -6049,6 +6043,14 @@ cxx_eval_store_expression (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, tree t,
 						  mutable_p)
 		     && const_object_being_modified == NULL_TREE)
 	      const_object_being_modified = probe;
+
+	    /* Track named member accesses for unions to validate modifications
+	       that change active member.  */
+	    if (!evaluated && TREE_CODE (probe) == COMPONENT_REF)
+	      vec_safe_push (refs, probe);
+	    else
+	      vec_safe_push (refs, NULL_TREE);
+
 	    vec_safe_push (refs, elt);
 	    vec_safe_push (refs, TREE_TYPE (probe));
 	    probe = ob;
@@ -6057,6 +6059,7 @@ cxx_eval_store_expression (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, tree t,
 
 	case REALPART_EXPR:
 	  gcc_assert (probe == target);
+	  vec_safe_push (refs, NULL_TREE);
 	  vec_safe_push (refs, probe);
 	  vec_safe_push (refs, TREE_TYPE (probe));
 	  probe = TREE_OPERAND (probe, 0);
@@ -6064,6 +6067,7 @@ cxx_eval_store_expression (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, tree t,
 
 	case IMAGPART_EXPR:
 	  gcc_assert (probe == target);
+	  vec_safe_push (refs, NULL_TREE);
 	  vec_safe_push (refs, probe);
 	  vec_safe_push (refs, TREE_TYPE (probe));
 	  probe = TREE_OPERAND (probe, 0);
@@ -6152,6 +6156,7 @@ cxx_eval_store_expression (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, tree t,
       enum tree_code code = TREE_CODE (type);
       tree reftype = refs->pop();
       tree index = refs->pop();
+      bool is_access_expr = refs->pop() != NULL_TREE;
 
       if (code == COMPLEX_TYPE)
 	{
@@ -6192,10 +6197,16 @@ cxx_eval_store_expression (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, tree t,
 
       type = reftype;
 
-      if (code == UNION_TYPE && CONSTRUCTOR_NELTS (*valp)
-	  && CONSTRUCTOR_ELT (*valp, 0)->index != index)
+      if (code == UNION_TYPE
+	  && TREE_CODE (t) == MODIFY_EXPR
+	  && (CONSTRUCTOR_NELTS (*valp) == 0
+	      || CONSTRUCTOR_ELT (*valp, 0)->index != index))
 	{
-	  if (cxx_dialect < cxx20)
+	  /* We changed the active member of a union. Ensure that this is
+	     valid.  */
+	  bool has_active_member = CONSTRUCTOR_NELTS (*valp) != 0;
+	  tree inner = strip_array_types (reftype);
+	  if (has_active_member && cxx_dialect < cxx20)
 	    {
 	      if (!ctx->quiet)
 		error_at (cp_expr_loc_or_input_loc (t),
@@ -6205,8 +6216,36 @@ cxx_eval_store_expression (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, tree t,
 			  index);
 	      *non_constant_p = true;
 	    }
-	  else if (TREE_CODE (t) == MODIFY_EXPR
-		   && CONSTRUCTOR_NO_CLEARING (*valp))
+	  else if (!is_access_expr
+		   || (CLASS_TYPE_P (inner)
+		       && !type_has_non_deleted_trivial_default_ctor (inner)))
+	    {
+	      /* Diagnose changing active union member after initialisation
+		 without a valid member access expression, as described in
+		 [class.union.general] p5.  */
+	      if (!ctx->quiet)
+		{
+		  if (has_active_member)
+		    error_at (cp_expr_loc_or_input_loc (t),
+			      "accessing %qD member instead of initialized "
+			      "%qD member in constant expression",
+			      index, CONSTRUCTOR_ELT (*valp, 0)->index);
+		  else
+		    error_at (cp_expr_loc_or_input_loc (t),
+			      "accessing uninitialized member %qD",
+			      index);
+		  if (is_access_expr)
+		    {
+		      inform (DECL_SOURCE_LOCATION (index),
+			      "%qD does not implicitly begin its lifetime "
+			      "because %qT does not have a non-deleted "
+			      "trivial default constructor",
+			      index, inner);
+		    }
+		}
+	      *non_constant_p = true;
+	    }
+	  else if (has_active_member && CONSTRUCTOR_NO_CLEARING (*valp))
 	    {
 	      /* Diagnose changing the active union member while the union
 		 is in the process of being initialized.  */
diff --git a/gcc/cp/cp-tree.h b/gcc/cp/cp-tree.h
index 608d6310e53..fa0d5cdf52b 100644
--- a/gcc/cp/cp-tree.h
+++ b/gcc/cp/cp-tree.h
@@ -6791,6 +6791,7 @@ extern bool trivial_default_constructor_is_constexpr (tree);
 extern bool type_has_constexpr_default_constructor (tree);
 extern bool type_has_constexpr_destructor	(tree);
 extern bool type_has_virtual_destructor		(tree);
+extern bool type_has_non_deleted_trivial_default_ctor (tree);
 extern bool classtype_has_move_assign_or_move_ctor_p (tree, bool user_declared);
 extern bool classtype_has_non_deleted_move_ctor (tree);
 extern tree classtype_has_depr_implicit_copy	(tree);
diff --git a/gcc/testsuite/g++.dg/cpp2a/constexpr-union2.C b/gcc/testsuite/g++.dg/cpp2a/constexpr-union2.C
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..1712395d7e7
--- /dev/null
+++ b/gcc/testsuite/g++.dg/cpp2a/constexpr-union2.C
@@ -0,0 +1,30 @@
+// PR c++/101631
+// { dg-do compile { target c++20 } }
+
+struct sso {
+  union {
+    int buf[10];
+    int* alloc;
+  };
+};
+
+constexpr bool direct() {
+  sso val;
+  val.alloc = nullptr;
+  val.buf[5] = 42;
+  return true;
+}
+constexpr bool ok = direct();
+
+
+constexpr void perform_assignment(int& left, int right) noexcept {
+  left = right;  // { dg-error "accessing .+ member instead of initialized" }
+}
+
+constexpr bool indirect() {
+  sso val;
+  val.alloc = nullptr;
+  perform_assignment(val.buf[5], 42);  // { dg-message "in .constexpr. expansion" }
+  return true;
+}
+constexpr bool err = indirect();  // { dg-message "in .constexpr. expansion" }
diff --git a/gcc/testsuite/g++.dg/cpp2a/constexpr-union3.C b/gcc/testsuite/g++.dg/cpp2a/constexpr-union3.C
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..6d30bb2498f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/gcc/testsuite/g++.dg/cpp2a/constexpr-union3.C
@@ -0,0 +1,45 @@
+// { dg-do compile { target c++20 } }
+
+struct S
+{
+  union {
+    char buf[8];
+    char* ptr;
+  };
+  unsigned len;
+
+  constexpr S(const char* s, unsigned n)
+  {
+    char* p;
+    if (n > 7)
+      p = ptr = new char[n+1];
+    else
+      p = buf;
+    for (len = 0; len < n; ++len)
+      p[len] = s[len];  // { dg-error "accessing uninitialized member" }
+    p[len] = '\0';
+  }
+
+  constexpr ~S()
+  {
+    if (len > 7)
+      delete[] ptr;
+  }
+};
+
+constexpr bool test1()
+{
+  S s("test", 4);  // { dg-message "in .constexpr. expansion" }
+  return true;
+}
+
+constexpr bool a = test1();  // { dg-message "in .constexpr. expansion" }
+
+
+constexpr bool test2()
+{
+  S s("hello world", 11);
+  return true;
+}
+
+constexpr bool b = test2();
diff --git a/gcc/testsuite/g++.dg/cpp2a/constexpr-union4.C b/gcc/testsuite/g++.dg/cpp2a/constexpr-union4.C
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..429ab203ac2
--- /dev/null
+++ b/gcc/testsuite/g++.dg/cpp2a/constexpr-union4.C
@@ -0,0 +1,29 @@
+// { dg-do compile { target c++20 } }
+
+// from [class.union.general] p5
+
+union A { int x; int y[4]; };
+struct B { A a; };
+union C { B b; int k; };
+constexpr int f() {
+  C c;                  // does not start lifetime of any union member
+  c.b.a.y[3] = 4;       // OK, S(c.b.a.y[3]) contains c.b and c.b.a.y;
+                        // creates objects to hold union members c.b and c.b.a.y
+  return c.b.a.y[3];    // OK, c.b.a.y refers to newly created object (see [basic.life])
+}
+constexpr int a = f();
+
+struct X { const int a; int b; };
+union Y { X x; int k; };// { dg-message "does not implicitly begin its lifetime" }
+constexpr int g() {
+  Y y = { { 1, 2 } };   // OK, y.x is active union member ([class.mem])
+  int n = y.x.a;
+  y.k = 4;              // OK, ends lifetime of y.x, y.k is active member of union
+
+  y.x.b = n;            // { dg-error "accessing .* member instead of initialized .* member" }
+                        // undefined behavior: y.x.b modified outside its lifetime,
+                        // S(y.x.b) is empty because X's default constructor is deleted,
+                        // so union member y.x's lifetime does not implicitly start
+  return 0;
+}
+constexpr int b = g();  // { dg-message "in .constexpr. expansion" }
diff --git a/gcc/testsuite/g++.dg/cpp2a/constexpr-union5.C b/gcc/testsuite/g++.dg/cpp2a/constexpr-union5.C
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..3da43a1cf40
--- /dev/null
+++ b/gcc/testsuite/g++.dg/cpp2a/constexpr-union5.C
@@ -0,0 +1,55 @@
+// { dg-do compile { target c++20 } }
+
+union U { int a; int b; int c[2]; };
+
+constexpr int test1() {
+  U u;
+  u.a = 10;
+  *&u.b = 20;  // { dg-error "accessing" }
+  return u.b;
+}
+constexpr int a = test1();  // { dg-message "in .constexpr. expansion" }
+
+constexpr int test2() {
+  U u;
+  u.a = 10;
+  (0, u.b) = 20;  // { dg-error "accessing" }
+  return u.b;
+}
+constexpr int b = test2();  // { dg-message "in .constexpr. expansion" }
+
+constexpr int test3() {
+  U u;
+  u.a = 0;
+  int* p = &u.b;
+  p[u.a] = 10;  // { dg-error "accessing" }
+  return u.b;
+}
+constexpr int c = test3();  // { dg-message "in .constexpr. expansion" }
+
+constexpr int test4() {
+  U u;
+  u.a = 0;
+  int* p = &u.b;
+  u.a[p] = 10;  // { dg-error "accessing" }
+  return u.b;
+}
+constexpr int d = test4();  // { dg-message "in .constexpr. expansion" }
+
+struct S { U u[10]; };
+constexpr int test5() {
+  S s;
+  s.u[4].a = 10;
+  6[s.u].b = 15;
+  return 4[s.u].a + s.u[6].b;
+}
+static_assert(test5() == 25);
+
+constexpr int test6() {
+  U u;
+  u.a = 5;
+  u.c[0] = 3;
+  1[u.c] = 8;
+  return 1[u.c] + u.c[0];
+}
+static_assert(test6() == 11);
-- 
2.41.0



More information about the Gcc-patches mailing list