[PATCH 10/12 V2] arm: Implement cortex-M return signing address codegen

Richard Earnshaw Richard.Earnshaw@foss.arm.com
Fri Jul 1 15:43:47 GMT 2022



On 28/06/2022 10:17, Andrea Corallo via Gcc-patches wrote:
> Hi all,
> 
> second version of this patch enabling address return signature and
> verification based on Armv8.1-M Pointer Authentication [1].
> 
> To sign the return address, we use the PAC R12, LR, SP instruction
> upon function entry.  This is signing LR using SP and storing the
> result in R12.  R12 will be pushed into the stack.
> 
> During function epilogue R12 will be popped and AUT R12, LR, SP will
> be used to verify that the content of LR is still valid before return.
> 
> Here an example of PAC instrumented function prologue and epilogue:
> 
> void foo (void);
> 
> int main()
> {
>    foo ();
>    return 0;
> }
> 
> Compiled with '-march=armv8.1-m.main -mbranch-protection=pac-ret
> -mthumb' translates into:
> 
> main:
> 	pac	ip, lr, sp
> 	push	{r3, r7, ip, lr}
> 	add	r7, sp, #0
> 	bl	foo
> 	movs	r3, #0
> 	mov	r0, r3
> 	pop	{r3, r7, ip, lr}
> 	aut	ip, lr, sp
> 	bx	lr
> 
> The patch also takes care of generating a PACBTI instruction in place
> of the sequence BTI+PAC when Branch Target Identification is enabled
> contextually.
> 
> Ex. the previous example compiled with '-march=armv8.1-m.main
> -mbranch-protection=pac-ret+bti -mthumb' translates into:
> 
> main:
> 	pacbti	ip, lr, sp
> 	push	{r3, r7, ip, lr}
> 	add	r7, sp, #0
> 	bl	foo
> 	movs	r3, #0
> 	mov	r0, r3
> 	pop	{r3, r7, ip, lr}
> 	aut	ip, lr, sp
> 	bx	lr
> 
> As part of previous upstream suggestions a test for varargs has been
> added and '-mtpcs-frame' is deemed being incompatible with this return
> signing address feature being introduced.
> 
> [1] <https://community.arm.com/developer/ip-products/processors/b/processors-ip-blog/posts/armv8-1-m-pointer-authentication-and-branch-target-identification-extension>
> 
> gcc/Changelog
> 
> 	* config/arm/arm.c: (arm_compute_frame_layout)
> 	(arm_expand_prologue, thumb2_expand_return, arm_expand_epilogue)
> 	(arm_conditional_register_usage): Update for pac codegen.
> 	(arm_current_function_pac_enabled_p): New function.
> 	* config/arm/arm.md (pac_ip_lr_sp, pacbti_ip_lr_sp, aut_ip_lr_sp):
> 	Add new patterns.
> 	* config/arm/unspecs.md (UNSPEC_PAC_IP_LR_SP)
> 	(UNSPEC_PACBTI_IP_LR_SP, UNSPEC_AUT_IP_LR_SP): Add unspecs.
> 
> gcc/testsuite/Changelog
> 
> 	* gcc.target/arm/pac.h : New file.
> 	* gcc.target/arm/pac-1.c : New test case.
> 	* gcc.target/arm/pac-2.c : Likewise.
> 	* gcc.target/arm/pac-3.c : Likewise.
> 	* gcc.target/arm/pac-4.c : Likewise.
> 	* gcc.target/arm/pac-5.c : Likewise.
> 	* gcc.target/arm/pac-6.c : Likewise.
> 	* gcc.target/arm/pac-7.c : Likewise.
> 	* gcc.target/arm/pac-8.c : Likewise.
> 

@@ -21139,6 +21139,14 @@ arm_compute_save_core_reg_mask (void)

    save_reg_mask |= arm_compute_save_reg0_reg12_mask ();

+  if (arm_current_function_pac_enabled_p ())
+    {
+      if (TARGET_TPCS_FRAME
+	  || (TARGET_TPCS_LEAF_FRAME && crtl->is_leaf))
+	error ("TPCS incompatible with return address signing.");
+      save_reg_mask |= 1 << IP_REGNUM;
+    }
+

This is the wrong place for a test like this as it will be generated 
every time this function is called (which might be more than once per 
compiled function).

However, TPCS frames are only supported for 'thumb-1' code and PACBTI 
needs armv8-m.main (ie Thumb-2), so the test is really pretty pointless 
at the moment.  I think we should just drop the error.

@@ -22302,7 +22310,7 @@ arm_emit_multi_reg_pop (unsigned long 
saved_regs_mask)
      par = emit_insn (par);

    REG_NOTES (par) = dwarf;
-  if (!return_in_pc)
+  if (!return_in_pc && !frame_pointer_needed)
      arm_add_cfa_adjust_cfa_note (par, UNITS_PER_WORD * num_regs,
  				 stack_pointer_rtx, stack_pointer_rtx);
  }

What's this hunk for?  It doesn't seem related to the PAC changes.  Is 
this some generic bug?  If so, it should be pulled out into a separate 
patch.  If not, it needs some comment as to why we do it this way.

@@ -23352,6 +23360,11 @@ output_probe_stack_range (rtx reg1, rtx reg2)
    return "";
  }

+static bool  aarch_bti_enabled ()
+{
+  return false;
+}
+

GNU style requires the function name to be in the first column:

static bool
aarch_bti_enabled ()
{
   ...

@@ -23431,11 +23444,12 @@ arm_expand_prologue (void)
    /* The static chain register is the same as the IP register.  If it is
       clobbered when creating the frame, we need to save and restore 
it.  */
    clobber_ip = IS_NESTED (func_type)
-	       && ((TARGET_APCS_FRAME && frame_pointer_needed && TARGET_ARM)
-		   || ((flag_stack_check == STATIC_BUILTIN_STACK_CHECK
-			|| flag_stack_clash_protection)
-		       && !df_regs_ever_live_p (LR_REGNUM)
-		       && arm_r3_live_at_start_p ()));
+    && (((TARGET_APCS_FRAME && frame_pointer_needed && TARGET_ARM)
+	 || ((flag_stack_check == STATIC_BUILTIN_STACK_CHECK
+	      || flag_stack_clash_protection)
+	     && !df_regs_ever_live_p (LR_REGNUM)
+	     && arm_r3_live_at_start_p ()))
+	|| (arm_current_function_pac_enabled_p ()));

This whole statement needs parenthesis around it so that auto-indent 
will work properly:

   clobber_ip
     = (IS_NESTED (func_type)
        && (....
	   || arm_current_function_pac_enabled_p ()));

@@ -23511,6 +23525,14 @@ arm_expand_prologue (void)
  	}
      }

+  if (arm_current_function_pac_enabled_p ())
+    {
+      if (aarch_bti_enabled ())
+	emit_insn (gen_pacbti_nop ());
+      else
+	emit_insn (gen_pac_nop ());
+    }

What about BTI enabled but PAC not?

@@ -27299,7 +27321,8 @@ thumb2_expand_return (bool simple_return)
  	 to assert it for now to ensure that future code changes do not silently
  	 change this behavior.  */
        gcc_assert (!IS_CMSE_ENTRY (arm_current_func_type ()));
-      if (num_regs == 1)
+      if (num_regs == 1
+	  && !(arm_current_function_pac_enabled_p ()))

Redundant parenthesis.

@@ -27314,10 +27337,20 @@ thumb2_expand_return (bool simple_return)
          }
        else
          {
-          saved_regs_mask &= ~ (1 << LR_REGNUM);
-          saved_regs_mask |=   (1 << PC_REGNUM);
-          arm_emit_multi_reg_pop (saved_regs_mask);
-        }
+	  if (arm_current_function_pac_enabled_p ())
+	    {
+	      saved_regs_mask &= ~ (1 << PC_REGNUM);

Is that really needed?  The other cases are changing LR to PC, but I 
don't think PC should already be set as otherwise our calculation of the 
frame size will be incorrect.  Please try it as a gcc_assert() and 
validate this assertion.


+	      arm_emit_multi_reg_pop (saved_regs_mask);
+	      emit_insn (gen_aut_nop ());
+	      emit_jump_insn (simple_return_rtx);


@@ -30541,6 +30578,9 @@ arm_conditional_register_usage (void)
  	global_regs[ARM_HARD_FRAME_POINTER_REGNUM] = 1;
      }

+  if (TARGET_HAVE_PACBTI)
+    call_used_regs[IP_REGNUM] = 1;
+

Why is this needed?  CALL_USED_REGISTERS already defines IP (r12) as 
call-used.

+++ b/gcc/config/arm/arm.md
@@ -11514,11 +11514,17 @@
  (define_expand "prologue"
    [(clobber (const_int 0))]
    "TARGET_EITHER"
-  "if (TARGET_32BIT)
+  "if (arm_current_function_pac_enabled_p () && !arm_arch8)
+     {
+       error (\"This architecture does not support branch protection 
instructions\");
+       DONE;
+     }

No, this is the wrong place for a test like this.  A check should be 
placed in arm_option_override_internal instead (and normally we warn and 
tweak the options to be something sensible if they conflict).

+(define_insn "pac_nop"
+  [(set (reg:SI IP_REGNUM)
+	(unspec:SI [(reg:SI SP_REGNUM) (reg:SI LR_REGNUM)]
+                   UNSPEC_PAC_NOP))]
+  "TARGET_THUMB2"
+  "pac\t%|ip, %|lr, %|sp"
+  [(set_attr "length" "2")])

This pattern is missing a type.  The length is also incorrect as the 
instruction is 32-bits (4 bytes).  Similarly for the other instructions 
below.  Also, you need to mark them as incompatible with conditional 
execution (they're constrained-unpredictable in IT blocks).

All of the tests lack checks that the target board can run PAC/BTI.

R.


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