[PATCH 2/6] Add returns_zero_on_success/failure attributes

David Malcolm dmalcolm@redhat.com
Sat Nov 13 20:37:27 GMT 2021


This patch adds two new attributes.  The followup patch makes use of
the attributes in -fanalyzer.

gcc/c-family/ChangeLog:
	* c-attribs.c (attr_noreturn_exclusions): Add
	"returns_zero_on_failure" and "returns_zero_on_success".
	(attr_returns_twice_exclusions): Likewise.
	(attr_returns_zero_on_exclusions): New.
	(c_common_attribute_table): Add "returns_zero_on_failure" and
	"returns_zero_on_success".
	(handle_returns_zero_on_attributes): New.

gcc/ChangeLog:
	* doc/extend.texi (Common Function Attributes): Document
	"returns_zero_on_failure" and "returns_zero_on_success".

gcc/testsuite/ChangeLog:
	* c-c++-common/attr-returns-zero-on-1.c: New test.

Signed-off-by: David Malcolm <dmalcolm@redhat.com>
---
 gcc/c-family/c-attribs.c                      | 37 ++++++++++
 gcc/doc/extend.texi                           | 16 +++++
 .../c-c++-common/attr-returns-zero-on-1.c     | 68 +++++++++++++++++++
 3 files changed, 121 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 gcc/testsuite/c-c++-common/attr-returns-zero-on-1.c

diff --git a/gcc/c-family/c-attribs.c b/gcc/c-family/c-attribs.c
index 100c2dabab2..9e03156de5e 100644
--- a/gcc/c-family/c-attribs.c
+++ b/gcc/c-family/c-attribs.c
@@ -153,6 +153,7 @@ static tree handle_argspec_attribute (tree *, tree, tree, int, bool *);
 static tree handle_fnspec_attribute (tree *, tree, tree, int, bool *);
 static tree handle_warn_unused_attribute (tree *, tree, tree, int, bool *);
 static tree handle_returns_nonnull_attribute (tree *, tree, tree, int, bool *);
+static tree handle_returns_zero_on_attributes (tree *, tree, tree, int, bool *);
 static tree handle_omp_declare_simd_attribute (tree *, tree, tree, int,
 					       bool *);
 static tree handle_omp_declare_variant_attribute (tree *, tree, tree, int,
@@ -221,6 +222,8 @@ extern const struct attribute_spec::exclusions attr_noreturn_exclusions[] =
   ATTR_EXCL ("pure", true, true, true),
   ATTR_EXCL ("returns_twice", true, true, true),
   ATTR_EXCL ("warn_unused_result", true, true, true),
+  ATTR_EXCL ("returns_zero_on_failure", true, true, true),
+  ATTR_EXCL ("returns_zero_on_success", true, true, true),
   ATTR_EXCL (NULL, false, false, false),
 };
 
@@ -235,6 +238,8 @@ attr_warn_unused_result_exclusions[] =
 static const struct attribute_spec::exclusions attr_returns_twice_exclusions[] =
 {
   ATTR_EXCL ("noreturn", true, true, true),
+  ATTR_EXCL ("returns_zero_on_failure", true, true, true),
+  ATTR_EXCL ("returns_zero_on_success", true, true, true),
   ATTR_EXCL (NULL, false, false, false),
 };
 
@@ -275,6 +280,16 @@ static const struct attribute_spec::exclusions attr_stack_protect_exclusions[] =
   ATTR_EXCL (NULL, false, false, false),
 };
 
+/* Exclusions that apply to the returns_zero_on_* attributes.  */
+static const struct attribute_spec::exclusions
+  attr_returns_zero_on_exclusions[] =
+{
+  ATTR_EXCL ("noreturn", true, true, true),
+  ATTR_EXCL ("returns_twice", true, true, true),
+  ATTR_EXCL ("returns_zero_on_failure", true, true, true),
+  ATTR_EXCL ("returns_zero_on_success", true, true, true),
+  ATTR_EXCL (NULL, false, false, false),
+};
 
 /* Table of machine-independent attributes common to all C-like languages.
 
@@ -493,6 +508,12 @@ const struct attribute_spec c_common_attribute_table[] =
 			      handle_warn_unused_attribute, NULL },
   { "returns_nonnull",        0, 0, false, true, true, false,
 			      handle_returns_nonnull_attribute, NULL },
+  { "returns_zero_on_failure",0, 0, false, true, true, false,
+			      handle_returns_zero_on_attributes,
+			      attr_returns_zero_on_exclusions },
+  { "returns_zero_on_success",0, 0, false, true, true, false,
+			      handle_returns_zero_on_attributes,
+			      attr_returns_zero_on_exclusions },
   { "omp declare simd",       0, -1, true,  false, false, false,
 			      handle_omp_declare_simd_attribute, NULL },
   { "omp declare variant base", 0, -1, true,  false, false, false,
@@ -5660,6 +5681,22 @@ handle_returns_nonnull_attribute (tree *node, tree name, tree, int,
   return NULL_TREE;
 }
 
+/* Handle "returns_zero_on_failure" and "returns_zero_on_success" attributes;
+   arguments as in struct attribute_spec.handler.  */
+
+static tree
+handle_returns_zero_on_attributes (tree *node, tree name, tree, int,
+				   bool *no_add_attrs)
+{
+  if (!INTEGRAL_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (*node)))
+    {
+      error ("%qE attribute on a function not returning an integral type",
+	     name);
+      *no_add_attrs = true;
+    }
+  return NULL_TREE;
+}
+
 /* Handle a "designated_init" attribute; arguments as in
    struct attribute_spec.handler.  */
 
diff --git a/gcc/doc/extend.texi b/gcc/doc/extend.texi
index e9f47519df2..5a6ef464779 100644
--- a/gcc/doc/extend.texi
+++ b/gcc/doc/extend.texi
@@ -3784,6 +3784,22 @@ function.  Examples of such functions are @code{setjmp} and @code{vfork}.
 The @code{longjmp}-like counterpart of such function, if any, might need
 to be marked with the @code{noreturn} attribute.
 
+@item returns_zero_on_failure
+@cindex @code{returns_zero_on_failure} function attribute
+The @code{returns_zero_on_failure} attribute hints that the function
+can succeed or fail, returning non-zero on success and zero on failure.
+This is used by the @option{-fanalyzer} option to consider both outcomes
+separately, which may improve how it explores error-handling paths, and
+how such outcomes are labelled in diagnostics.  It is also a hint
+to the human reader of the source code.
+
+@item returns_zero_on_success
+@cindex @code{returns_zero_on_success} function attribute
+The @code{returns_zero_on_success} attribute is identical to the
+@code{returns_zero_on_failure} attribute, apart from having the
+opposite interpretation of the return value: zero on success, non-zero
+on failure.
+
 @item section ("@var{section-name}")
 @cindex @code{section} function attribute
 @cindex functions in arbitrary sections
diff --git a/gcc/testsuite/c-c++-common/attr-returns-zero-on-1.c b/gcc/testsuite/c-c++-common/attr-returns-zero-on-1.c
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..5475dfe61db
--- /dev/null
+++ b/gcc/testsuite/c-c++-common/attr-returns-zero-on-1.c
@@ -0,0 +1,68 @@
+/* Verify the parsing of the "returns_zero_on_{sucess|failure}" attributes.  */
+
+/* Correct usage.  */
+
+extern int test_int_return_s ()
+  __attribute__((returns_zero_on_success));
+extern long test_long_return_f ()
+  __attribute__((returns_zero_on_failure));
+
+/* Should complain if not a function.  */
+
+extern int not_a_function_s
+  __attribute__((returns_zero_on_success)); /* { dg-warning "'returns_zero_on_success' attribute only applies to function types" } */
+extern int not_a_function_f
+  __attribute__((returns_zero_on_failure)); /* { dg-warning "'returns_zero_on_failure' attribute only applies to function types" } */
+
+/* Should complain if return type is not integral.  */
+
+extern void test_void_return_s ()
+  __attribute__((returns_zero_on_success)); /* { dg-error "'returns_zero_on_success' attribute on a function not returning an integral type" } */
+extern void test_void_return_f ()
+  __attribute__((returns_zero_on_failure)); /* { dg-error "'returns_zero_on_failure' attribute on a function not returning an integral type" } */
+
+extern void *test_void_star_return_s ()
+  __attribute__((returns_zero_on_success)); /* { dg-error "'returns_zero_on_success' attribute on a function not returning an integral type" } */
+extern void *test_void_star_return_f ()
+  __attribute__((returns_zero_on_failure)); /* { dg-error "'returns_zero_on_failure' attribute on a function not returning an integral type" } */
+
+/* (and this prevents mixing with returns_non_null, which requires a pointer).  */
+
+/* Should complain if more than one returns_* attribute.  */
+
+extern int test_void_returns_s_f ()
+  __attribute__((returns_zero_on_success))
+  __attribute__((returns_zero_on_failure)); /* { dg-warning "ignoring attribute 'returns_zero_on_failure' because it conflicts with attribute 'returns_zero_on_success'" } */
+extern int test_void_returns_f_s ()
+  __attribute__((returns_zero_on_failure))
+  __attribute__((returns_zero_on_success)); /* { dg-warning "ignoring attribute 'returns_zero_on_success' because it conflicts with attribute 'returns_zero_on_failure'" } */
+
+/* Should complain if mixed with "noreturn".  */
+
+extern int test_noreturn_returns_s ()
+  __attribute__((noreturn))
+  __attribute__((returns_zero_on_success)); /* { dg-warning "ignoring attribute 'returns_zero_on_success' because it conflicts with attribute 'noreturn'" } */
+extern int test_returns_s_noreturn ()
+  __attribute__((returns_zero_on_success))
+  __attribute__((noreturn)); /* { dg-warning "ignoring attribute 'noreturn' because it conflicts with attribute 'returns_zero_on_success'" } */
+extern int test_noreturn_returns_f ()
+  __attribute__((noreturn))
+  __attribute__((returns_zero_on_failure)); /* { dg-warning "ignoring attribute 'returns_zero_on_failure' because it conflicts with attribute 'noreturn'" } */
+extern int test_returns_f_noreturn ()
+  __attribute__((returns_zero_on_failure))
+  __attribute__((noreturn)); /* { dg-warning "ignoring attribute 'noreturn' because it conflicts with attribute 'returns_zero_on_failure'" } */
+
+/* Should complain if mixed with "returns_twice".  */
+
+extern int test_returns_twice_returns_s ()
+  __attribute__((returns_twice))
+  __attribute__((returns_zero_on_success)); /* { dg-warning "ignoring attribute 'returns_zero_on_success' because it conflicts with attribute 'returns_twice'" } */
+extern int test_returns_s_returns_twice ()
+  __attribute__((returns_zero_on_success))
+  __attribute__((returns_twice)); /* { dg-warning "ignoring attribute 'returns_twice' because it conflicts with attribute 'returns_zero_on_success'" } */
+extern int test_returns_twice_returns_f ()
+  __attribute__((returns_twice))
+  __attribute__((returns_zero_on_failure)); /* { dg-warning "ignoring attribute 'returns_zero_on_failure' because it conflicts with attribute 'returns_twice'" } */
+extern int test_returns_f_returns_twice ()
+  __attribute__((returns_zero_on_failure))
+  __attribute__((returns_twice)); /* { dg-warning "ignoring attribute 'returns_twice' because it conflicts with attribute 'returns_zero_on_failure'" } */
-- 
2.26.3



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