'hash_map<tree, hash_map<tree, tree>>'

Martin Sebor msebor@gmail.com
Mon Aug 16 20:10:00 GMT 2021

On 8/16/21 6:44 AM, Thomas Schwinge wrote:
> Hi!
> On 2021-08-12T17:15:44-0600, Martin Sebor via Gcc <gcc@gcc.gnu.org> wrote:
>> On 8/6/21 10:57 AM, Thomas Schwinge wrote:
>>> So I'm trying to do some C++...  ;-)
>>> Given:
>>>       /* A map from SSA names or var decls to record fields.  */
>>>       typedef hash_map<tree, tree> field_map_t;
>>>       /* For each propagation record type, this is a map from SSA names or var decls
>>>          to propagate, to the field in the record type that should be used for
>>>          transmission and reception.  */
>>>       typedef hash_map<tree, field_map_t> record_field_map_t;
>>> Thus, that's a 'hash_map<tree, hash_map<tree, tree>>'.  (I may do that,
>>> right?)  Looking through GCC implementation files, very most of all uses
>>> of 'hash_map' boil down to pointer key ('tree', for example) and
>>> pointer/integer value.
>> Right.  Because most GCC containers rely exclusively on GCC's own
>> uses for testing, if your use case is novel in some way, chances
>> are it might not work as intended in all circumstances.
>> I've wrestled with hash_map a number of times.  A use case that's
>> close to yours (i.e., a non-trivial value type) is in cp/parser.c:
>> see class_to_loc_map_t.
> Indeed, at the time you sent this email, I already had started looking
> into that one!  (The Fortran test cases that I originally analyzed, which
> triggered other cases of non-POD/non-trivial destructor, all didn't
> result in a memory leak, because the non-trivial constructor doesn't
> actually allocate any resources dynamically -- that's indeed different in
> this case here.)  ..., and indeed:
>> (I don't remember if I tested it for leaks
>> though.  It's used to implement -Wmismatched-tags so compiling
>> a few tests under Valgrind should show if it does leak.)
> ... it does leak memory at present.  :-| (See attached commit log for
> details for one example.)
> To that effect, to document the current behavior, I propose to
> "Add more self-tests for 'hash_map' with Value type with non-trivial
> constructor/destructor", see attached.  OK to push to master branch?
> (Also cherry-pick into release branches, eventually?)

Adding more tests sounds like an excellent idea.  I'm not sure about
the idea of adding loopy selftests that iterate as many times as in
the patch (looks like 1234 times two?)  Selftests run each time GCC
builds (i.e., even during day to day development).  It seems to me
that it might be better to run such selftests only as part of
the bootstrap process.

>>> Then:
>>>       record_field_map_t field_map ([...]); // see below
>>>       for ([...])
>>>         {
>>>           tree record_type = [...];
>>>           [...]
>>>           bool existed;
>>>           field_map_t &fields
>>>             = field_map.get_or_insert (record_type, &existed);
>>>           gcc_checking_assert (!existed);
>>>           [...]
>>>           for ([...])
>>>             fields.put ([...], [...]);
>>>           [...]
>>>         }
>>>       [stuff that looks up elements from 'field_map']
>>>       field_map.empty ();
>>> This generally works.
>>> If I instantiate 'record_field_map_t field_map (40);', Valgrind is happy.
>>> If however I instantiate 'record_field_map_t field_map (13);' (where '13'
>>> would be the default for 'hash_map'), Valgrind complains:
>>>       2,080 bytes in 10 blocks are definitely lost in loss record 828 of 876
>>>          at 0x483DD99: calloc (vg_replace_malloc.c:762)
>>>          by 0x175F010: xcalloc (xmalloc.c:162)
>>>          by 0xAF4A2C: hash_table<hash_map<tree_node*, tree_node*, simple_hashmap_traits<default_hash_traits<tree_node*>, tree_node*> >::hash_entry, false, xcallocator>::hash_table(unsigned long, bool, bool, bool, mem_alloc_origin) (hash-table.h:275)
>>>          by 0x15E0120: hash_map<tree_node*, tree_node*, simple_hashmap_traits<default_hash_traits<tree_node*>, tree_node*> >::hash_map(unsigned long, bool, bool, bool) (hash-map.h:143)
>>>          by 0x15DEE87: hash_map<tree_node*, hash_map<tree_node*, tree_node*, simple_hashmap_traits<default_hash_traits<tree_node*>, tree_node*> >, simple_hashmap_traits<default_hash_traits<tree_node*>, hash_map<tree_node*, tree_node*, simple_hashmap_traits<default_hash_traits<tree_node*>, tree_node*> > > >::get_or_insert(tree_node* const&, bool*) (hash-map.h:205)
>>>          by 0x15DD52C: execute_omp_oacc_neuter_broadcast() (omp-oacc-neuter-broadcast.cc:1371)
>>>          [...]
>>> (That's with '#pragma GCC optimize "O0"' at the top of the 'gcc/*.cc'
>>> file.)
>>> My suspicion was that it is due to the 'field_map' getting resized as it
>>> incrementally grows (and '40' being big enough for that to never happen),
>>> and somehow the non-POD (?) value objects not being properly handled
>>> during that.  Working my way a bit through 'gcc/hash-map.*' and
>>> 'gcc/hash-table.*' (but not claiming that I understand all that, off
>>> hand), it seems as if my theory is right: I'm able to plug this memory
>>> leak as follows:
>>>       --- gcc/hash-table.h
>>>       +++ gcc/hash-table.h
>>>       @@ -820,6 +820,8 @@ hash_table<Descriptor, Lazy, Allocator>::expand ()
>>>                {
>>>                  value_type *q = find_empty_slot_for_expand (Descriptor::hash (x));
>>>             new ((void*) q) value_type (std::move (x));
>>>       +     //BAD Descriptor::remove (x); // (doesn't make sense and) a ton of "Invalid read [...] inside a block of size [...] free'd"
>>>       +     x.~value_type (); //GOOD This seems to work!  -- but does it make sense?
>>>                }
>>>              p++;
>>> However, that doesn't exactly look like a correct fix, does it?  I'd
>>> expect such a manual destructor call in combination with placement new
>>> (that is being used here, obviously) -- but this is after 'std::move'?
>>> However, this also survives a smoke-test-like run of parts of the GCC
>>> testsuite, bootstrap and complete run now ongoing.
>> If explicitly calling the dtor on the moved object is the right thing
>> to do I'd expect to see such invocations elsewhere in hash_table but
>> I don't.  It does seem like removed elements ought to be destroyed,
>> but it also seems like the destruction should go through some traits
>> class (e.g., call Descriptor::remove and mark_deleted or do some
>> similar dance), and be called from other member functions that move
>> elements.
> So, we shall assume that any "real C++" use case (that is, C++ class) is
> using the appropriate C++ method, that is, 'typed_delete_remove', which
> does 'delete', which does destroy the C++ object, if applicable, else
> 'typed_noop_remove'.
> (Shall we look into the few places that use 'typed_free_remove' via
> 'free_ptr_hash', and potentially replace them with 'typed_delete_remove'?
> Or is there a reason for the two schemes to co-exist, other than for
> legacy reasons?  Anyway, that's for another day.)

I find all these these traits pretty much impenetrable.  I guess
intuitively, I'd expect Descriptor::remove() to destroy an element,
but I have no idea if that would be right given the design.

> What is different in the 'hash_table::expand' case is that all the Value
> objects do get 'std::move'd into a new blob of memory via placement new
> (so a subsequent 'delete' via 'typed_delete_remove' is not appropriate),
> but then the stale Value objects never get destructed.  And indeed an
> explicit destructor call (which, as I understand is a no-op for primitive
> types; "pseudo destructor") is the right thing to do; see
> <https://stackoverflow.com/questions/6730403/how-to-delete-object-constructed-via-placement-new-operator>
> and others, for example.  (Therefore, I don't think this needs to be
> routed through a "traits" function, but can rather be done in-line here,
> after each placement new, before deallocation of the original blob of
> memory.  Also, I argue it's the right thing to do also for 'm_ggc',
> because even if in that case we're not going to leak memory (GC will
> reclaim), but we still may leak other resources dynamically allocated in
> a non-trivial constructor.)

Yes, of course, all elements need to be eventually be destroyed.
My only hesitation was whether it should be done via one of these
traits classes (like it's done in C++ containers via allocators)
rather than directly, and whether there might be other places
where the destruction night need to happen.

> The attached "Fix 'hash_table::expand' to destruct stale Value objects"
> does prevent my original problem, does address the current 'class2loc'
> memory leak in 'cp/parser.c' (see commit log for one example), and
> adjusts the new
> 'gcc/hash-map-tests.c:test_map_of_type_with_ctor_and_dtor_expand' test
> case such that number of constructor calls matches the number of
> destructor calls.  After some careful review regarding C++ details
> (please!), OK to push to master branch?  (Also cherry-pick into release
> branches, eventually?)  Is the source code comment that I'm adding
> sufficiently explanatory and correct in C++ terms?

Shouldn't the hash_table dtor (and perhaps also empty())  also
destroy the elements?  (Otherwise, what destroys the elements
newly constructed here, or anywhere else for that matter, such
as in the hash_table ctor?)

Also, shouldn't the destroyed slot be marked either deleted or

(Sorry, I realize I have more questions than answers.)


> Grüße
>   Thomas
> -----------------
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