[PATCH] c++: v2: Add __builtin_bit_cast to implement std::bit_cast [PR93121]

Jason Merrill jason@redhat.com
Wed Nov 25 17:26:17 GMT 2020


On 11/2/20 2:21 PM, Jakub Jelinek wrote:
> On Thu, Jul 30, 2020 at 10:16:46AM -0400, Jason Merrill via Gcc-patches wrote:
>>> The following patch adds __builtin_bit_cast builtin, similarly to
>>> clang or MSVC which implement std::bit_cast using such an builtin too.
>>
>> Great!
> 
> Sorry for the long delay.
> 
> The following patch implements what you've requested in the review.
> It doesn't deal with the padding bits being (sometimes) well defined, but if
> we e.g. get a new CONSTRUCTOR bit that would request that (and corresponding
> gimplifier change to pre-initialize to all zeros), it could be easily
> adjusted (just for such CONSTRUCTORs memset the whole mask portion
> (total_bytes) and set mask to NULL).  If there are other cases where
> such handling is desirable (e.g. I wonder about bit_cast being called on
> non-automatic const variables where their CONSTRUCTOR at least
> implementation-wise would end up being on pre-zeroed .rodata (or .data)
> memory), that can be handled too.
> 
> In the previous version I was using next_initializable_field, that is
> something that isn't available in the middle-end, so all I do right now
> is just skip non-FIELD_DECLs, unnamed bit-fields and fields with zero size.
> 
> Bootstrapped/regtested on x86_64-linux and i686-linux, ok for trunk?
> 
> 2020-11-02  Jakub Jelinek  <jakub@redhat.com>
> 
> 	PR libstdc++/93121
> 	* fold-const.h (native_encode_initializer): Add mask argument
> 	defaulted to nullptr.
> 	(find_bitfield_repr_type): Declare.
> 	* fold-const.c (find_bitfield_repr_type): New function.
> 	(native_encode_initializer): Add mask argument and support for
> 	filling it.  Handle also some bitfields without integral
> 	DECL_BIT_FIELD_REPRESENTATIVE.
> 
> 	* c-common.h (enum rid): Add RID_BUILTIN_BIT_CAST.
> 	* c-common.c (c_common_reswords): Add __builtin_bit_cast.
> 
> 	* cp-tree.h (cp_build_bit_cast): Declare.
> 	* cp-tree.def (BIT_CAST_EXPR): New tree code.
> 	* cp-objcp-common.c (names_builtin_p): Handle RID_BUILTIN_BIT_CAST.
> 	(cp_common_init_ts): Handle BIT_CAST_EXPR.
> 	* cxx-pretty-print.c (cxx_pretty_printer::postfix_expression):
> 	Likewise.
> 	* parser.c (cp_parser_postfix_expression): Handle
> 	RID_BUILTIN_BIT_CAST.
> 	* semantics.c (cp_build_bit_cast): New function.
> 	* tree.c (cp_tree_equal): Handle BIT_CAST_EXPR.
> 	(cp_walk_subtrees): Likewise.
> 	* pt.c (tsubst_copy): Likewise.
> 	* constexpr.c (check_bit_cast_type, cxx_native_interpret_aggregate,
> 	cxx_eval_bit_cast): New functions.
> 	(cxx_eval_constant_expression): Handle BIT_CAST_EXPR.
> 	(potential_constant_expression_1): Likewise.
> 	* cp-gimplify.c (cp_genericize_r): Likewise.
> 
> 	* g++.dg/cpp2a/bit-cast1.C: New test.
> 	* g++.dg/cpp2a/bit-cast2.C: New test.
> 	* g++.dg/cpp2a/bit-cast3.C: New test.
> 	* g++.dg/cpp2a/bit-cast4.C: New test.
> 	* g++.dg/cpp2a/bit-cast5.C: New test.
> 
> --- gcc/fold-const.h.jj	2020-08-18 07:50:18.716920202 +0200
> +++ gcc/fold-const.h	2020-11-02 15:53:59.859477063 +0100
> @@ -27,9 +27,10 @@ extern int folding_initializer;
>   /* Convert between trees and native memory representation.  */
>   extern int native_encode_expr (const_tree, unsigned char *, int, int off = -1);
>   extern int native_encode_initializer (tree, unsigned char *, int,
> -				      int off = -1);
> +				      int off = -1, unsigned char * = nullptr);
>   extern tree native_interpret_expr (tree, const unsigned char *, int);
>   extern bool can_native_interpret_type_p (tree);
> +extern tree find_bitfield_repr_type (int, int);
>   extern void shift_bytes_in_array_left (unsigned char *, unsigned int,
>   				       unsigned int);
>   extern void shift_bytes_in_array_right (unsigned char *, unsigned int,
> --- gcc/fold-const.c.jj	2020-10-15 15:09:49.079725120 +0200
> +++ gcc/fold-const.c	2020-11-02 17:20:43.784633491 +0100
> @@ -7915,25 +7915,78 @@ native_encode_expr (const_tree expr, uns
>       }
>   }
>   
> +/* Try to find a type whose byte size is smaller or equal to LEN bytes larger
> +   or equal to FIELDSIZE bytes, with underlying mode precision/size multiple
> +   of BITS_PER_UNIT.  As native_{interpret,encode}_int works in term of
> +   machine modes, we can't just use build_nonstandard_integer_type.  */
> +
> +tree
> +find_bitfield_repr_type (int fieldsize, int len)
> +{
> +  machine_mode mode;
> +  for (int pass = 0; pass < 2; pass++)
> +    {
> +      enum mode_class mclass = pass ? MODE_PARTIAL_INT : MODE_INT;
> +      FOR_EACH_MODE_IN_CLASS (mode, mclass)
> +	if (known_ge (GET_MODE_SIZE (mode), fieldsize)
> +	    && known_eq (GET_MODE_PRECISION (mode),
> +			 GET_MODE_BITSIZE (mode))
> +	    && known_le (GET_MODE_SIZE (mode), len))
> +	  {
> +	    tree ret = lang_hooks.types.type_for_mode (mode, 1);
> +	    if (ret && TYPE_MODE (ret) == mode)
> +	      return ret;
> +	  }
> +    }
> +
> +  for (int i = 0; i < NUM_INT_N_ENTS; i ++)
> +    if (int_n_enabled_p[i]
> +	&& int_n_data[i].bitsize >= (unsigned) (BITS_PER_UNIT * fieldsize)
> +	&& int_n_trees[i].unsigned_type)
> +      {
> +	tree ret = int_n_trees[i].unsigned_type;
> +	mode = TYPE_MODE (ret);
> +	if (known_ge (GET_MODE_SIZE (mode), fieldsize)
> +	    && known_eq (GET_MODE_PRECISION (mode),
> +			 GET_MODE_BITSIZE (mode))
> +	    && known_le (GET_MODE_SIZE (mode), len))
> +	  return ret;
> +      }
> +
> +  return NULL_TREE;
> +}
> +
>   /* Similar to native_encode_expr, but also handle CONSTRUCTORs, VCEs,
> -   NON_LVALUE_EXPRs and nops.  */
> +   NON_LVALUE_EXPRs and nops.  If MASK is non-NULL (then PTR has
> +   to be non-NULL and OFF zero), then in addition to filling the
> +   bytes pointed by PTR with the value also clear any bits pointed
> +   by MASK that are known to be initialized, keep them as is for
> +   e.g. uninitialized padding bits or uninitialized fields.  */
>   
>   int
>   native_encode_initializer (tree init, unsigned char *ptr, int len,
> -			   int off)
> +			   int off, unsigned char *mask)
>   {
> +  int r;
> +
>     /* We don't support starting at negative offset and -1 is special.  */
>     if (off < -1 || init == NULL_TREE)
>       return 0;
>   
> +  gcc_assert (mask == NULL || (off == 0 && ptr));
> +
>     STRIP_NOPS (init);
>     switch (TREE_CODE (init))
>       {
>       case VIEW_CONVERT_EXPR:
>       case NON_LVALUE_EXPR:
> -      return native_encode_initializer (TREE_OPERAND (init, 0), ptr, len, off);
> +      return native_encode_initializer (TREE_OPERAND (init, 0), ptr, len, off,
> +					mask);
>       default:
> -      return native_encode_expr (init, ptr, len, off);
> +      r = native_encode_expr (init, ptr, len, off);
> +      if (mask)
> +	memset (mask, 0, r);
> +      return r;
>       case CONSTRUCTOR:
>         tree type = TREE_TYPE (init);
>         HOST_WIDE_INT total_bytes = int_size_in_bytes (type);
> @@ -7946,7 +7999,7 @@ native_encode_initializer (tree init, un
>   	{
>   	  HOST_WIDE_INT min_index;
>   	  unsigned HOST_WIDE_INT cnt;
> -	  HOST_WIDE_INT curpos = 0, fieldsize;
> +	  HOST_WIDE_INT curpos = 0, fieldsize, valueinit = -1;
>   	  constructor_elt *ce;
>   
>   	  if (TYPE_DOMAIN (type) == NULL_TREE
> @@ -7961,12 +8014,22 @@ native_encode_initializer (tree init, un
>   	  if (ptr != NULL)
>   	    memset (ptr, '\0', MIN (total_bytes - off, len));
>   
> -	  FOR_EACH_VEC_SAFE_ELT (CONSTRUCTOR_ELTS (init), cnt, ce)
> +	  for (cnt = 0; ; cnt++)
>   	    {
> -	      tree val = ce->value;
> -	      tree index = ce->index;
> +	      tree val = NULL_TREE, index = NULL_TREE;
>   	      HOST_WIDE_INT pos = curpos, count = 0;
>   	      bool full = false;
> +	      if (vec_safe_iterate (CONSTRUCTOR_ELTS (init), cnt, &ce))
> +		{
> +		  val = ce->value;
> +		  index = ce->index;
> +		}
> +	      else if (mask == NULL
> +		       || CONSTRUCTOR_NO_CLEARING (init)
> +		       || curpos >= total_bytes)
> +		break;
> +	      else
> +		pos = total_bytes;
>   	      if (index && TREE_CODE (index) == RANGE_EXPR)
>   		{
>   		  if (!tree_fits_shwi_p (TREE_OPERAND (index, 0))
> @@ -7984,6 +8047,28 @@ native_encode_initializer (tree init, un
>   		  pos = (tree_to_shwi (index) - min_index) * fieldsize;
>   		}
>   
> +	      if (mask && !CONSTRUCTOR_NO_CLEARING (init) && curpos != pos)
> +		{
> +		  if (valueinit == -1)
> +		    {
> +		      tree zero = build_constructor (TREE_TYPE (type), NULL);
> +		      r = native_encode_initializer (zero, ptr + curpos,
> +						     fieldsize, 0,
> +						     mask + curpos);
> +		      ggc_free (zero);
> +		      if (!r)
> +			return 0;
> +		      valueinit = curpos;
> +		      curpos += fieldsize;
> +		    }
> +		  while (curpos != pos)
> +		    {
> +		      memcpy (ptr + curpos, ptr + valueinit, fieldsize);
> +		      memcpy (mask + curpos, mask + valueinit, fieldsize);
> +		      curpos += fieldsize;
> +		    }
> +		}
> +
>   	      curpos = pos;
>   	      if (val)
>   		do
> @@ -7998,6 +8083,8 @@ native_encode_initializer (tree init, un
>   			    if (ptr)
>   			      memcpy (ptr + (curpos - o), ptr + (pos - o),
>   				      fieldsize);
> +			    if (mask)
> +			      memcpy (mask + curpos, mask + pos, fieldsize);
>   			  }
>   			else if (!native_encode_initializer (val,
>   							     ptr
> @@ -8005,7 +8092,10 @@ native_encode_initializer (tree init, un
>   							     : NULL,
>   							     fieldsize,
>   							     off == -1 ? -1
> -								       : 0))
> +								       : 0,
> +							     mask
> +							     ? mask + curpos
> +							     : NULL))
>   			  return 0;
>   			else
>   			  {
> @@ -8020,6 +8110,7 @@ native_encode_initializer (tree init, un
>   			unsigned char *p = NULL;
>   			int no = 0;
>   			int l;
> +			gcc_assert (mask == NULL);
>   			if (curpos >= off)
>   			  {
>   			    if (ptr)
> @@ -8033,7 +8124,7 @@ native_encode_initializer (tree init, un
>   			    no = off - curpos;
>   			    l = len;
>   			  }
> -			if (!native_encode_initializer (val, p, l, no))
> +			if (!native_encode_initializer (val, p, l, no, NULL))
>   			  return 0;
>   		      }
>   		    curpos += fieldsize;
> @@ -8047,22 +8138,75 @@ native_encode_initializer (tree init, un
>   	{
>   	  unsigned HOST_WIDE_INT cnt;
>   	  constructor_elt *ce;
> +	  tree fld_base = TYPE_FIELDS (type);
> +	  tree to_free = NULL_TREE;
>   
> +	  gcc_assert (TREE_CODE (type) == RECORD_TYPE || mask == NULL);
>   	  if (ptr != NULL)
>   	    memset (ptr, '\0', MIN (total_bytes - off, len));
> -	  FOR_EACH_VEC_SAFE_ELT (CONSTRUCTOR_ELTS (init), cnt, ce)
> +	  for (cnt = 0; ; cnt++)
>   	    {
> -	      tree field = ce->index;
> -	      tree val = ce->value;
> -	      HOST_WIDE_INT pos, fieldsize;
> +	      tree val = NULL_TREE, field = NULL_TREE;
> +	      HOST_WIDE_INT pos = 0, fieldsize;
>   	      unsigned HOST_WIDE_INT bpos = 0, epos = 0;
>   
> -	      if (field == NULL_TREE)
> -		return 0;
> +	      if (to_free)
> +		{
> +		  ggc_free (to_free);
> +		  to_free = NULL_TREE;
> +		}
>   
> -	      pos = int_byte_position (field);
> -	      if (off != -1 && (HOST_WIDE_INT) off + len <= pos)
> -		continue;
> +	      if (vec_safe_iterate (CONSTRUCTOR_ELTS (init), cnt, &ce))
> +		{
> +		  val = ce->value;
> +		  field = ce->index;
> +		  if (field == NULL_TREE)
> +		    return 0;
> +
> +		  pos = int_byte_position (field);
> +		  if (off != -1 && (HOST_WIDE_INT) off + len <= pos)
> +		    continue;
> +		}
> +	      else if (mask == NULL
> +		       || CONSTRUCTOR_NO_CLEARING (init))
> +		break;
> +	      else
> +		pos = total_bytes;
> +
> +	      if (mask && !CONSTRUCTOR_NO_CLEARING (init))
> +		{
> +		  tree fld;
> +		  for (fld = fld_base; fld; fld = DECL_CHAIN (fld))
> +		    {
> +		      if (TREE_CODE (fld) != FIELD_DECL)
> +			continue;
> +		      if (fld == field)
> +			break;
> +		      if (DECL_BIT_FIELD (fld)
> +			  && DECL_NAME (fld) == NULL_TREE)
> +			continue;

I think you want to check DECL_PADDING_P here; the C and C++ front ends 
set it on unnamed bit-fields, and that's what is_empty_type looks at.

> +		      if (DECL_SIZE_UNIT (fld) == NULL_TREE
> +			  || !tree_fits_shwi_p (DECL_SIZE_UNIT (fld)))
> +			return 0;
> +		      if (integer_zerop (DECL_SIZE_UNIT (fld)))
> +			continue;
> +		      break;
> +		    }
> +		  if (fld == NULL_TREE)
> +		    {
> +		      if (ce == NULL)
> +			break;
> +		      return 0;
> +		    }
> +		  fld_base = DECL_CHAIN (fld);
> +		  if (fld != field)
> +		    {
> +		      cnt--;
> +		      field = fld;
> +		      val = build_constructor (TREE_TYPE (fld), NULL);
> +		      to_free = val;
> +		    }
> +		}
>   
>   	      if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (field)) == ARRAY_TYPE
>   		  && TYPE_DOMAIN (TREE_TYPE (field))
> @@ -8103,30 +8247,49 @@ native_encode_initializer (tree init, un
>   		  if (BYTES_BIG_ENDIAN != WORDS_BIG_ENDIAN)
>   		    return 0;
>   
> -		  tree repr = DECL_BIT_FIELD_REPRESENTATIVE (field);
> -		  if (repr == NULL_TREE
> -		      || TREE_CODE (val) != INTEGER_CST
> -		      || !INTEGRAL_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (repr)))
> +		  if (TREE_CODE (val) != INTEGER_CST)
>   		    return 0;
>   
> -		  HOST_WIDE_INT rpos = int_byte_position (repr);
> +		  tree repr = DECL_BIT_FIELD_REPRESENTATIVE (field);
> +		  tree repr_type = NULL_TREE;
> +		  HOST_WIDE_INT rpos = 0;
> +		  if (repr && INTEGRAL_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (repr)))
> +		    {
> +		      rpos = int_byte_position (repr);
> +		      repr_type = TREE_TYPE (repr);
> +		    }
> +		  else
> +		    {
> +		      repr_type = find_bitfield_repr_type (fieldsize, len);
> +		      if (repr_type == NULL_TREE)
> +			return 0;
> +		      HOST_WIDE_INT repr_size = int_size_in_bytes (repr_type);
> +		      gcc_assert (repr_size > 0 && repr_size <= len);
> +		      if (pos + repr_size <= len)
> +			rpos = pos;
> +		      else
> +			{
> +			  rpos = len - repr_size;
> +			  gcc_assert (rpos <= pos);
> +			}
> +		    }
> +
>   		  if (rpos > pos)
>   		    return 0;
> -		  wide_int w = wi::to_wide (val,
> -					    TYPE_PRECISION (TREE_TYPE (repr)));
> -		  int diff = (TYPE_PRECISION (TREE_TYPE (repr))
> +		  wide_int w = wi::to_wide (val, TYPE_PRECISION (repr_type));
> +		  int diff = (TYPE_PRECISION (repr_type)
>   			      - TYPE_PRECISION (TREE_TYPE (field)));
>   		  HOST_WIDE_INT bitoff = (pos - rpos) * BITS_PER_UNIT + bpos;
>   		  if (!BYTES_BIG_ENDIAN)
>   		    w = wi::lshift (w, bitoff);
>   		  else
>   		    w = wi::lshift (w, diff - bitoff);
> -		  val = wide_int_to_tree (TREE_TYPE (repr), w);
> +		  val = wide_int_to_tree (repr_type, w);
>   
>   		  unsigned char buf[MAX_BITSIZE_MODE_ANY_INT
>   				    / BITS_PER_UNIT + 1];
>   		  int l = native_encode_int (val, buf, sizeof buf, 0);
> -		  if (l * BITS_PER_UNIT != TYPE_PRECISION (TREE_TYPE (repr)))
> +		  if (l * BITS_PER_UNIT != TYPE_PRECISION (repr_type))
>   		    return 0;
>   
>   		  if (ptr == NULL)
> @@ -8139,15 +8302,31 @@ native_encode_initializer (tree init, un
>   		    {
>   		      if (!BYTES_BIG_ENDIAN)
>   			{
> -			  int mask = (1 << bpos) - 1;
> -			  buf[pos - rpos] &= ~mask;
> -			  buf[pos - rpos] |= ptr[pos - o] & mask;
> +			  int msk = (1 << bpos) - 1;
> +			  buf[pos - rpos] &= ~msk;
> +			  buf[pos - rpos] |= ptr[pos - o] & msk;
> +			  if (mask)
> +			    {
> +			      if (fieldsize > 1 || epos == 0)
> +				mask[pos] &= msk;
> +			      else
> +				mask[pos] &= (msk | ~((1 << epos) - 1));
> +			    }
>   			}
>   		      else
>   			{
> -			  int mask = (1 << (BITS_PER_UNIT - bpos)) - 1;
> -			  buf[pos - rpos] &= mask;
> -			  buf[pos - rpos] |= ptr[pos - o] & ~mask;
> +			  int msk = (1 << (BITS_PER_UNIT - bpos)) - 1;
> +			  buf[pos - rpos] &= msk;
> +			  buf[pos - rpos] |= ptr[pos - o] & ~msk;
> +			  if (mask)
> +			    {
> +			      if (fieldsize > 1 || epos == 0)
> +				mask[pos] &= ~msk;
> +			      else
> +				mask[pos] &= (~msk
> +					      | ((1 << (BITS_PER_UNIT - epos))
> +						 - 1));
> +			    }
>   			}
>   		    }
>   		  /* If the bitfield does not end at byte boundary, handle
> @@ -8158,27 +8337,37 @@ native_encode_initializer (tree init, un
>   		    {
>   		      if (!BYTES_BIG_ENDIAN)
>   			{
> -			  int mask = (1 << epos) - 1;
> -			  buf[pos - rpos + fieldsize - 1] &= mask;
> +			  int msk = (1 << epos) - 1;
> +			  buf[pos - rpos + fieldsize - 1] &= msk;
>   			  buf[pos - rpos + fieldsize - 1]
> -			    |= ptr[pos + fieldsize - 1 - o] & ~mask;
> +			    |= ptr[pos + fieldsize - 1 - o] & ~msk;
> +			  if (mask && (fieldsize > 1 || bpos == 0))
> +			    mask[pos + fieldsize - 1] &= ~msk;
>   			}
>   		       else
>   			{
> -			  int mask = (1 << (BITS_PER_UNIT - epos)) - 1;
> -			  buf[pos - rpos + fieldsize - 1] &= ~mask;
> +			  int msk = (1 << (BITS_PER_UNIT - epos)) - 1;
> +			  buf[pos - rpos + fieldsize - 1] &= ~msk;
>   			  buf[pos - rpos + fieldsize - 1]
> -			    |= ptr[pos + fieldsize - 1 - o] & mask;
> +			    |= ptr[pos + fieldsize - 1 - o] & msk;
> +			  if (mask && (fieldsize > 1 || bpos == 0))
> +			    mask[pos + fieldsize - 1] &= msk;
>   			}
>   		    }
>   		  if (off == -1
>   		      || (pos >= off
>   			  && (pos + fieldsize <= (HOST_WIDE_INT) off + len)))
> -		    memcpy (ptr + pos - o, buf + (pos - rpos), fieldsize);
> +		    {
> +		      memcpy (ptr + pos - o, buf + (pos - rpos), fieldsize);
> +		      if (mask && (fieldsize > (bpos != 0) + (epos != 0)))
> +			memset (mask + pos + (bpos != 0), 0,
> +				fieldsize - (bpos != 0) - (epos != 0));
> +		    }
>   		  else
>   		    {
>   		      /* Partial overlap.  */
>   		      HOST_WIDE_INT fsz = fieldsize;
> +		      gcc_assert (mask == NULL);
>   		      if (pos < off)
>   			{
>   			  fsz -= (off - pos);
> @@ -8198,7 +8387,8 @@ native_encode_initializer (tree init, un
>   		  if (!native_encode_initializer (val, ptr ? ptr + pos - o
>   							   : NULL,
>   						  fieldsize,
> -						  off == -1 ? -1 : 0))
> +						  off == -1 ? -1 : 0,
> +						  mask ? mask + pos : NULL))
>   		    return 0;
>   		}
>   	      else
> @@ -8207,6 +8397,7 @@ native_encode_initializer (tree init, un
>   		  unsigned char *p = NULL;
>   		  int no = 0;
>   		  int l;
> +		  gcc_assert (mask == NULL);
>   		  if (pos >= off)
>   		    {
>   		      if (ptr)
> @@ -8220,7 +8411,7 @@ native_encode_initializer (tree init, un
>   		      no = off - pos;
>   		      l = len;
>   		    }
> -		  if (!native_encode_initializer (val, p, l, no))
> +		  if (!native_encode_initializer (val, p, l, no, NULL))
>   		    return 0;
>   		}
>   	    }
> --- gcc/c-family/c-common.h.jj	2020-10-27 14:36:42.182246025 +0100
> +++ gcc/c-family/c-common.h	2020-11-02 13:42:18.699819747 +0100
> @@ -164,7 +164,7 @@ enum rid
>     RID_HAS_NOTHROW_COPY,        RID_HAS_TRIVIAL_ASSIGN,
>     RID_HAS_TRIVIAL_CONSTRUCTOR, RID_HAS_TRIVIAL_COPY,
>     RID_HAS_TRIVIAL_DESTRUCTOR,  RID_HAS_UNIQUE_OBJ_REPRESENTATIONS,
> -  RID_HAS_VIRTUAL_DESTRUCTOR,
> +  RID_HAS_VIRTUAL_DESTRUCTOR,  RID_BUILTIN_BIT_CAST,
>     RID_IS_ABSTRACT,             RID_IS_AGGREGATE,
>     RID_IS_BASE_OF,              RID_IS_CLASS,
>     RID_IS_EMPTY,                RID_IS_ENUM,
> --- gcc/c-family/c-common.c.jj	2020-10-27 14:36:42.182246025 +0100
> +++ gcc/c-family/c-common.c	2020-11-02 13:42:18.700819736 +0100
> @@ -374,6 +374,7 @@ const struct c_common_resword c_common_r
>     { "__auto_type",	RID_AUTO_TYPE,	D_CONLY },
>     { "__bases",          RID_BASES, D_CXXONLY },
>     { "__builtin_addressof", RID_ADDRESSOF, D_CXXONLY },
> +  { "__builtin_bit_cast", RID_BUILTIN_BIT_CAST, D_CXXONLY },
>     { "__builtin_call_with_static_chain",
>       RID_BUILTIN_CALL_WITH_STATIC_CHAIN, D_CONLY },
>     { "__builtin_choose_expr", RID_CHOOSE_EXPR, D_CONLY },
> --- gcc/cp/cp-tree.h.jj	2020-10-30 08:59:57.041496709 +0100
> +++ gcc/cp/cp-tree.h	2020-11-02 13:42:18.701819725 +0100
> @@ -7273,6 +7273,8 @@ extern tree finish_builtin_launder		(loc
>   						 tsubst_flags_t);
>   extern tree cp_build_vec_convert		(tree, location_t, tree,
>   						 tsubst_flags_t);
> +extern tree cp_build_bit_cast			(location_t, tree, tree,
> +						 tsubst_flags_t);
>   extern void start_lambda_scope			(tree);
>   extern void record_lambda_scope			(tree);
>   extern void record_null_lambda_scope		(tree);
> --- gcc/cp/cp-tree.def.jj	2020-09-21 11:15:53.715518437 +0200
> +++ gcc/cp/cp-tree.def	2020-11-02 13:42:18.701819725 +0100
> @@ -437,6 +437,9 @@ DEFTREECODE (UNARY_RIGHT_FOLD_EXPR, "una
>   DEFTREECODE (BINARY_LEFT_FOLD_EXPR, "binary_left_fold_expr", tcc_expression, 3)
>   DEFTREECODE (BINARY_RIGHT_FOLD_EXPR, "binary_right_fold_expr", tcc_expression, 3)
>   
> +/* Represents the __builtin_bit_cast (type, expr) expression.
> +   The type is in TREE_TYPE, expression in TREE_OPERAND (bitcast, 0).  */
> +DEFTREECODE (BIT_CAST_EXPR, "bit_cast_expr", tcc_expression, 1)
>   
>   /** C++ extensions. */
>   
> --- gcc/cp/cp-objcp-common.c.jj	2020-09-21 11:15:53.715518437 +0200
> +++ gcc/cp/cp-objcp-common.c	2020-11-02 13:42:18.701819725 +0100
> @@ -390,6 +390,7 @@ names_builtin_p (const char *name)
>       case RID_BUILTIN_HAS_ATTRIBUTE:
>       case RID_BUILTIN_SHUFFLE:
>       case RID_BUILTIN_LAUNDER:
> +    case RID_BUILTIN_BIT_CAST:
>       case RID_OFFSETOF:
>       case RID_HAS_NOTHROW_ASSIGN:
>       case RID_HAS_NOTHROW_CONSTRUCTOR:
> @@ -488,6 +489,7 @@ cp_common_init_ts (void)
>     MARK_TS_EXP (ALIGNOF_EXPR);
>     MARK_TS_EXP (ARROW_EXPR);
>     MARK_TS_EXP (AT_ENCODE_EXPR);
> +  MARK_TS_EXP (BIT_CAST_EXPR);
>     MARK_TS_EXP (CAST_EXPR);
>     MARK_TS_EXP (CONST_CAST_EXPR);
>     MARK_TS_EXP (CTOR_INITIALIZER);
> --- gcc/cp/cxx-pretty-print.c.jj	2020-10-19 09:32:35.503914847 +0200
> +++ gcc/cp/cxx-pretty-print.c	2020-11-02 13:42:18.702819714 +0100
> @@ -655,6 +655,15 @@ cxx_pretty_printer::postfix_expression (
>         pp_right_paren (this);
>         break;
>   
> +    case BIT_CAST_EXPR:
> +      pp_cxx_ws_string (this, "__builtin_bit_cast");
> +      pp_left_paren (this);
> +      type_id (TREE_TYPE (t));
> +      pp_comma (this);
> +      expression (TREE_OPERAND (t, 0));
> +      pp_right_paren (this);
> +      break;
> +
>       case EMPTY_CLASS_EXPR:
>         type_id (TREE_TYPE (t));
>         pp_left_paren (this);
> --- gcc/cp/parser.c.jj	2020-11-02 13:33:46.039434035 +0100
> +++ gcc/cp/parser.c	2020-11-02 13:42:18.705819681 +0100
> @@ -7234,6 +7234,32 @@ cp_parser_postfix_expression (cp_parser
>   				     tf_warning_or_error);
>         }
>   
> +    case RID_BUILTIN_BIT_CAST:
> +      {
> +	tree expression;
> +	tree type;
> +	/* Consume the `__builtin_bit_cast' token.  */
> +	cp_lexer_consume_token (parser->lexer);
> +	/* Look for the opening `('.  */
> +	matching_parens parens;
> +	parens.require_open (parser);
> +	location_t type_location
> +	  = cp_lexer_peek_token (parser->lexer)->location;
> +	/* Parse the type-id.  */
> +	{
> +	  type_id_in_expr_sentinel s (parser);
> +	  type = cp_parser_type_id (parser);
> +	}
> +	/* Look for the `,'.  */
> +	cp_parser_require (parser, CPP_COMMA, RT_COMMA);
> +	/* Now, parse the assignment-expression.  */
> +	expression = cp_parser_assignment_expression (parser);
> +	/* Look for the closing `)'.  */
> +	parens.require_close (parser);
> +	return cp_build_bit_cast (type_location, type, expression,
> +				  tf_warning_or_error);
> +      }
> +
>       default:
>         {
>   	tree type;
> --- gcc/cp/semantics.c.jj	2020-10-30 09:16:30.816279461 +0100
> +++ gcc/cp/semantics.c	2020-11-02 13:42:18.706819671 +0100
> @@ -10591,4 +10591,76 @@ cp_build_vec_convert (tree arg, location
>     return build_call_expr_internal_loc (loc, IFN_VEC_CONVERT, type, 1, arg);
>   }
>   
> +/* Finish __builtin_bit_cast (type, arg).  */
> +
> +tree
> +cp_build_bit_cast (location_t loc, tree type, tree arg,
> +		   tsubst_flags_t complain)
> +{
> +  if (error_operand_p (type))
> +    return error_mark_node;
> +  if (!dependent_type_p (type))
> +    {
> +      if (!complete_type_or_maybe_complain (type, NULL_TREE, complain))
> +	return error_mark_node;
> +      if (TREE_CODE (type) == ARRAY_TYPE)
> +	{
> +	  /* std::bit_cast for destination ARRAY_TYPE is not possible,
> +	     as functions may not return an array, so don't bother trying
> +	     to support this (and then deal with VLAs etc.).  */
> +	  error_at (loc, "%<__builtin_bit_cast%> destination type %qT "
> +			 "is an array type", type);
> +	  return error_mark_node;
> +	}
> +      if (!trivially_copyable_p (type))
> +	{
> +	  error_at (loc, "%<__builtin_bit_cast%> destination type %qT "
> +			 "is not trivially copyable", type);
> +	  return error_mark_node;
> +	}
> +    }
> +
> +  if (error_operand_p (arg))
> +    return error_mark_node;
> +
> +  if (!type_dependent_expression_p (arg))
> +    {
> +      if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (arg)) == ARRAY_TYPE)
> +	{
> +	  /* Don't perform array-to-pointer conversion.  */
> +	  arg = mark_rvalue_use (arg, loc, true);
> +	  if (!complete_type_or_maybe_complain (TREE_TYPE (arg), arg, complain))
> +	    return error_mark_node;
> +	}
> +      else
> +	arg = decay_conversion (arg, complain);

bit_cast operates on an lvalue argument, so I don't think we want 
decay_conversion at all here.

> +      if (error_operand_p (arg))
> +	return error_mark_node;
> +
> +      arg = convert_from_reference (arg);

This shouldn't be necessary; the argument should already be converted 
from reference.  Generally we call convert_from_reference on the result 
of some processing, not on an incoming argument.

> +      if (!trivially_copyable_p (TREE_TYPE (arg)))
> +	{
> +	  error_at (cp_expr_loc_or_loc (arg, loc),
> +		    "%<__builtin_bit_cast%> source type %qT "
> +		    "is not trivially copyable", TREE_TYPE (arg));
> +	  return error_mark_node;
> +	}
> +      if (!dependent_type_p (type)
> +	  && !cp_tree_equal (TYPE_SIZE_UNIT (type),
> +			     TYPE_SIZE_UNIT (TREE_TYPE (arg))))
> +	{
> +	  error_at (loc, "%<__builtin_bit_cast%> source size %qE "
> +			 "not equal to destination type size %qE",
> +			 TYPE_SIZE_UNIT (TREE_TYPE (arg)),
> +			 TYPE_SIZE_UNIT (type));
> +	  return error_mark_node;
> +	}
> +    }
> +
> +  tree ret = build_min (BIT_CAST_EXPR, type, arg);
> +  SET_EXPR_LOCATION (ret, loc);
> +  return ret;
> +}
> +
>   #include "gt-cp-semantics.h"
> --- gcc/cp/tree.c.jj	2020-10-08 10:58:22.023037307 +0200
> +++ gcc/cp/tree.c	2020-11-02 13:42:18.707819660 +0100
> @@ -3868,6 +3868,7 @@ cp_tree_equal (tree t1, tree t2)
>       CASE_CONVERT:
>       case NON_LVALUE_EXPR:
>       case VIEW_CONVERT_EXPR:
> +    case BIT_CAST_EXPR:
>         if (!same_type_p (TREE_TYPE (t1), TREE_TYPE (t2)))
>   	return false;
>         /* Now compare operands as usual.  */
> @@ -5112,6 +5113,7 @@ cp_walk_subtrees (tree *tp, int *walk_su
>       case CONST_CAST_EXPR:
>       case DYNAMIC_CAST_EXPR:
>       case IMPLICIT_CONV_EXPR:
> +    case BIT_CAST_EXPR:
>         if (TREE_TYPE (*tp))
>   	WALK_SUBTREE (TREE_TYPE (*tp));
>   
> --- gcc/cp/pt.c.jj	2020-10-30 09:16:30.818279438 +0100
> +++ gcc/cp/pt.c	2020-11-02 13:42:18.709819638 +0100
> @@ -16741,6 +16741,13 @@ tsubst_copy (tree t, tree args, tsubst_f
>   	return build1 (code, type, op0);
>         }
>   
> +    case BIT_CAST_EXPR:
> +      {
> +	tree type = tsubst (TREE_TYPE (t), args, complain, in_decl);
> +	tree op0 = tsubst_copy (TREE_OPERAND (t, 0), args, complain, in_decl);
> +	return cp_build_bit_cast (EXPR_LOCATION (t), type, op0, complain);
> +      }
> +
>       case SIZEOF_EXPR:
>         if (PACK_EXPANSION_P (TREE_OPERAND (t, 0))
>   	  || ARGUMENT_PACK_P (TREE_OPERAND (t, 0)))
> --- gcc/cp/constexpr.c.jj	2020-10-30 08:59:57.039496732 +0100
> +++ gcc/cp/constexpr.c	2020-11-02 15:55:14.259664820 +0100
> @@ -3912,6 +3912,442 @@ cxx_eval_bit_field_ref (const constexpr_
>     return error_mark_node;
>   }
>   
> +/* Helper for cxx_eval_bit_cast.
> +   Check [bit.cast]/3 rules, bit_cast is constexpr only if the To and From
> +   types and types of all subobjects have is_union_v<T>, is_pointer_v<T>,
> +   is_member_pointer_v<T>, is_volatile_v<T> false and has no non-static
> +   data members of reference type.  */
> +
> +static bool
> +check_bit_cast_type (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, location_t loc, tree type,
> +		     tree orig_type)
> +{
> +  if (TREE_CODE (type) == UNION_TYPE)
> +    {
> +      if (!ctx->quiet)
> +	{
> +	  if (type == orig_type)
> +	    error_at (loc, "%qs is not a constant expression because %qT is "
> +			   "a union type", "__builtin_bit_cast", type);
> +	  else
> +	    error_at (loc, "%qs is not a constant expression because %qT "
> +			   "contains a union type", "__builtin_bit_cast",
> +		      orig_type);
> +	}
> +      return true;
> +    }
> +  if (TREE_CODE (type) == POINTER_TYPE)
> +    {
> +      if (!ctx->quiet)
> +	{
> +	  if (type == orig_type)
> +	    error_at (loc, "%qs is not a constant expression because %qT is "
> +			   "a pointer type", "__builtin_bit_cast", type);
> +	  else
> +	    error_at (loc, "%qs is not a constant expression because %qT "
> +			   "contains a pointer type", "__builtin_bit_cast",
> +		      orig_type);
> +	}
> +      return true;
> +    }
> +  if (TREE_CODE (type) == REFERENCE_TYPE)
> +    {
> +      if (!ctx->quiet)
> +	{
> +	  if (type == orig_type)
> +	    error_at (loc, "%qs is not a constant expression because %qT is "
> +			   "a reference type", "__builtin_bit_cast", type);
> +	  else
> +	    error_at (loc, "%qs is not a constant expression because %qT "
> +			   "contains a reference type", "__builtin_bit_cast",
> +		      orig_type);
> +	}
> +      return true;
> +    }
> +  if (TYPE_PTRMEM_P (type))
> +    {
> +      if (!ctx->quiet)
> +	{
> +	  if (type == orig_type)
> +	    error_at (loc, "%qs is not a constant expression because %qT is "
> +			   "a pointer to member type", "__builtin_bit_cast",
> +		      type);
> +	  else
> +	    error_at (loc, "%qs is not a constant expression because %qT "
> +			   "contains a pointer to member type",
> +		      "__builtin_bit_cast", orig_type);
> +	}
> +      return true;
> +    }
> +  if (TYPE_VOLATILE (type))
> +    {
> +      if (!ctx->quiet)
> +	{
> +	  if (type == orig_type)
> +	    error_at (loc, "%qs is not a constant expression because %qT is "
> +			   "volatile", "__builtin_bit_cast", type);
> +	  else
> +	    error_at (loc, "%qs is not a constant expression because %qT "
> +			   "contains a volatile subobject",
> +		      "__builtin_bit_cast", orig_type);
> +	}
> +      return true;
> +    }
> +  if (TREE_CODE (type) == RECORD_TYPE)
> +    for (tree field = TYPE_FIELDS (type); field; field = DECL_CHAIN (field))
> +      if (TREE_CODE (field) == FIELD_DECL
> +	  && check_bit_cast_type (ctx, loc, TREE_TYPE (field), orig_type))
> +	return true;
> +  return false;
> +}
> +
> +/* Attempt to interpret aggregate of TYPE from bytes encoded in target
> +   byte order at PTR + OFF with LEN bytes.  MASK contains bits set if the value
> +   is indeterminate.  */
> +
> +static tree
> +cxx_native_interpret_aggregate (tree type, const unsigned char *ptr, int off,
> +				int len, unsigned char *mask,
> +				const constexpr_ctx *ctx, bool *non_constant_p,
> +				location_t loc)

Can this be, say, native_interpret_initializer in fold-const?  It 
doesn't seem closely tied to the front end other than diagnostics that 
could move to the caller, like you've already done for the non-aggregate 
case.

> +{
> +  vec<constructor_elt, va_gc> *elts = NULL;
> +  if (TREE_CODE (type) == ARRAY_TYPE)
> +    {
> +      HOST_WIDE_INT eltsz = int_size_in_bytes (TREE_TYPE (type));
> +      if (eltsz < 0 || eltsz > len || TYPE_DOMAIN (type) == NULL_TREE)
> +	return error_mark_node;
> +
> +      HOST_WIDE_INT cnt = 0;
> +      if (TYPE_MAX_VALUE (TYPE_DOMAIN (type)))
> +	{
> +	  if (!tree_fits_shwi_p (TYPE_MAX_VALUE (TYPE_DOMAIN (type))))
> +	    return error_mark_node;
> +	  cnt = tree_to_shwi (TYPE_MAX_VALUE (TYPE_DOMAIN (type))) + 1;
> +	}
> +      if (eltsz == 0)
> +	cnt = 0;
> +      HOST_WIDE_INT pos = 0;
> +      for (HOST_WIDE_INT i = 0; i < cnt; i++, pos += eltsz)
> +	{
> +	  tree v = error_mark_node;
> +	  if (pos >= len || pos + eltsz > len)
> +	    return error_mark_node;
> +	  if (can_native_interpret_type_p (TREE_TYPE (type)))
> +	    {
> +	      v = native_interpret_expr (TREE_TYPE (type),
> +					 ptr + off + pos, eltsz);
> +	      if (v == NULL_TREE)
> +		return error_mark_node;
> +	      for (int i = 0; i < eltsz; i++)
> +		if (mask[off + pos + i])
> +		  {
> +		    if (!ctx->quiet)
> +		      error_at (loc, "%qs accessing uninitialized byte at "
> +				     "offset %d",
> +				"__builtin_bit_cast", (int) (off + pos + i));
> +		    *non_constant_p = true;
> +		    return error_mark_node;
> +		  }
> +	    }
> +	  else if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (type)) == RECORD_TYPE
> +		   || TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (type)) == ARRAY_TYPE)
> +	    v = cxx_native_interpret_aggregate (TREE_TYPE (type),
> +						ptr, off + pos, eltsz,
> +						mask, ctx,
> +						non_constant_p, loc);
> +	  if (v == error_mark_node)
> +	    return error_mark_node;
> +	  CONSTRUCTOR_APPEND_ELT (elts, size_int (i), v);
> +	}
> +      return build_constructor (type, elts);
> +    }
> +  gcc_assert (TREE_CODE (type) == RECORD_TYPE);
> +  for (tree field = next_initializable_field (TYPE_FIELDS (type));
> +       field; field = next_initializable_field (DECL_CHAIN (field)))
> +    {
> +      tree fld = field;
> +      HOST_WIDE_INT bitoff = 0, pos = 0, sz = 0;
> +      int diff = 0;
> +      tree v = error_mark_node;
> +      if (DECL_BIT_FIELD (field))
> +	{
> +	  fld = DECL_BIT_FIELD_REPRESENTATIVE (field);
> +	  if (fld && INTEGRAL_TYPE_P (TREE_TYPE (fld)))
> +	    {
> +	      poly_int64 bitoffset;
> +	      poly_uint64 field_offset, fld_offset;
> +	      if (poly_int_tree_p (DECL_FIELD_OFFSET (field), &field_offset)
> +		  && poly_int_tree_p (DECL_FIELD_OFFSET (fld), &fld_offset))
> +		bitoffset = (field_offset - fld_offset) * BITS_PER_UNIT;
> +	      else
> +		bitoffset = 0;
> +	      bitoffset += (tree_to_uhwi (DECL_FIELD_BIT_OFFSET (field))
> +			    - tree_to_uhwi (DECL_FIELD_BIT_OFFSET (fld)));
> +	      diff = (TYPE_PRECISION (TREE_TYPE (fld))
> +		      - TYPE_PRECISION (TREE_TYPE (field)));
> +	      if (!bitoffset.is_constant (&bitoff)
> +		  || bitoff < 0
> +		  || bitoff > diff)
> +		return error_mark_node;
> +	    }
> +	  else
> +	    {
> +	      if (!tree_fits_uhwi_p (DECL_FIELD_BIT_OFFSET (field)))
> +		return error_mark_node;
> +	      int fieldsize = TYPE_PRECISION (TREE_TYPE (field));
> +	      int bpos = tree_to_uhwi (DECL_FIELD_BIT_OFFSET (field));
> +	      bpos %= BITS_PER_UNIT;
> +	      fieldsize += bpos;
> +	      fieldsize += BITS_PER_UNIT - 1;
> +	      fieldsize /= BITS_PER_UNIT;
> +	      tree repr_type = find_bitfield_repr_type (fieldsize, len);
> +	      if (repr_type == NULL_TREE)
> +		return error_mark_node;
> +	      sz = int_size_in_bytes (repr_type);
> +	      if (sz < 0 || sz > len)
> +		return error_mark_node;
> +	      pos = int_byte_position (field);
> +	      if (pos < 0 || pos > len || pos + fieldsize > len)
> +		return error_mark_node;
> +	      HOST_WIDE_INT rpos;
> +	      if (pos + sz <= len)
> +		rpos = pos;
> +	      else
> +		{
> +		  rpos = len - sz;
> +		  gcc_assert (rpos <= pos);
> +		}
> +	      bitoff = (HOST_WIDE_INT) (pos - rpos) * BITS_PER_UNIT + bpos;
> +	      pos = rpos;
> +	      diff = (TYPE_PRECISION (repr_type)
> +		      - TYPE_PRECISION (TREE_TYPE (field)));
> +	      v = native_interpret_expr (repr_type, ptr + off + pos, sz);
> +	      if (v == NULL_TREE)
> +		return error_mark_node;
> +	      fld = NULL_TREE;
> +	    }
> +	}
> +
> +      if (fld)
> +	{
> +	  sz = int_size_in_bytes (TREE_TYPE (fld));
> +	  if (sz < 0 || sz > len)
> +	    return error_mark_node;
> +	  tree byte_pos = byte_position (fld);
> +	  if (!tree_fits_shwi_p (byte_pos))
> +	    return error_mark_node;
> +	  pos = tree_to_shwi (byte_pos);
> +	  if (pos < 0 || pos > len || pos + sz > len)
> +	    return error_mark_node;
> +	}
> +      if (fld == NULL_TREE)
> +	/* Already handled above.  */;
> +      else if (can_native_interpret_type_p (TREE_TYPE (fld)))
> +	{
> +	  v = native_interpret_expr (TREE_TYPE (fld),
> +				     ptr + off + pos, sz);
> +	  if (v == NULL_TREE)
> +	    return error_mark_node;
> +	  if (fld == field)
> +	    for (int i = 0; i < sz; i++)
> +	      if (mask[off + pos + i])
> +		{
> +		  if (!ctx->quiet)
> +		    error_at (loc,
> +			      "%qs accessing uninitialized byte at offset %d",
> +			      "__builtin_bit_cast", (int) (off + pos + i));
> +		  *non_constant_p = true;
> +		  return error_mark_node;
> +		}
> +	}
> +      else if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (fld)) == RECORD_TYPE
> +	       || TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (fld)) == ARRAY_TYPE)
> +	v = cxx_native_interpret_aggregate (TREE_TYPE (fld),
> +					    ptr, off + pos, sz, mask,
> +					    ctx, non_constant_p, loc);
> +      if (v == error_mark_node)
> +	return error_mark_node;
> +      if (fld != field)
> +	{
> +	  if (TREE_CODE (v) != INTEGER_CST)
> +	    return error_mark_node;
> +
> +	  /* FIXME: Figure out how to handle PDP endian bitfields.  */
> +	  if (BYTES_BIG_ENDIAN != WORDS_BIG_ENDIAN)
> +	    return error_mark_node;
> +	  if (!BYTES_BIG_ENDIAN)
> +	    v = wide_int_to_tree (TREE_TYPE (field),
> +				  wi::lrshift (wi::to_wide (v), bitoff));
> +	  else
> +	    v = wide_int_to_tree (TREE_TYPE (field),
> +				  wi::lrshift (wi::to_wide (v),
> +					       diff - bitoff));
> +	  int bpos = bitoff % BITS_PER_UNIT;
> +	  int bpos_byte = bitoff / BITS_PER_UNIT;
> +	  int fieldsize = TYPE_PRECISION (TREE_TYPE (field));
> +	  fieldsize += bpos;
> +	  int epos = fieldsize % BITS_PER_UNIT;
> +	  fieldsize += BITS_PER_UNIT - 1;
> +	  fieldsize /= BITS_PER_UNIT;
> +	  int bad = -1;
> +	  if (bpos)
> +	    {
> +	      int msk;
> +	      if (!BYTES_BIG_ENDIAN)
> +		{
> +		  msk = (1 << bpos) - 1;
> +		  if (fieldsize == 1 && epos != 0)
> +		    msk |= ~((1 << epos) - 1);
> +		}
> +	      else
> +		{
> +		  msk = ~((1 << (BITS_PER_UNIT - bpos)) - 1);
> +		  if (fieldsize == 1 && epos != 0)
> +		    msk |= (1 << (BITS_PER_UNIT - epos)) - 1;
> +		}
> +	      if (mask[off + pos + bpos_byte] & ~msk)
> +		bad = off + pos + bpos_byte;
> +	    }
> +	  if (epos && (fieldsize > 1 || bpos == 0))
> +	    {
> +	      int msk;
> +	      if (!BYTES_BIG_ENDIAN)
> +		msk = (1 << epos) - 1;
> +	      else
> +		msk = ~((1 << (BITS_PER_UNIT - epos)) - 1);
> +	      if (mask[off + pos + bpos_byte + fieldsize - 1] & msk)
> +		bad = off + pos + bpos_byte + fieldsize - 1;
> +	    }
> +	  for (int i = 0; bad < 0 && i < fieldsize - (bpos != 0) - (epos != 0);
> +	       i++)
> +	    if (mask[off + pos + bpos_byte + (bpos != 0) + i])
> +	      bad = off + pos + bpos_byte + (bpos != 0) + i;
> +	  if (bad >= 0)
> +	    {
> +	      if (!ctx->quiet)
> +		error_at (loc, "%qs accessing uninitialized byte at offset %d",
> +			  "__builtin_bit_cast", bad);
> +	      *non_constant_p = true;
> +	      return error_mark_node;
> +	    }
> +	}
> +      CONSTRUCTOR_APPEND_ELT (elts, field, v);
> +    }
> +  return build_constructor (type, elts);
> +}
> +
> +/* Subroutine of cxx_eval_constant_expression.
> +   Attempt to evaluate a BIT_CAST_EXPR.  */
> +
> +static tree
> +cxx_eval_bit_cast (const constexpr_ctx *ctx, tree t, bool *non_constant_p,
> +		   bool *overflow_p)
> +{
> +  if (check_bit_cast_type (ctx, EXPR_LOCATION (t), TREE_TYPE (t),
> +			   TREE_TYPE (t))
> +      || check_bit_cast_type (ctx, cp_expr_loc_or_loc (TREE_OPERAND (t, 0),
> +						       EXPR_LOCATION (t)),
> +			      TREE_TYPE (TREE_OPERAND (t, 0)),
> +			      TREE_TYPE (TREE_OPERAND (t, 0))))
> +    {
> +      *non_constant_p = true;
> +      return t;
> +    }
> +
> +  tree op = cxx_eval_constant_expression (ctx, TREE_OPERAND (t, 0), false,
> +					  non_constant_p, overflow_p);
> +  if (*non_constant_p)
> +    return t;
> +
> +  location_t loc = EXPR_LOCATION (t);
> +  if (BITS_PER_UNIT != 8 || CHAR_BIT != 8)
> +    {
> +      if (!ctx->quiet)
> +	sorry_at (loc, "%qs cannot be constant evaluated on the target",
> +		       "__builtin_bit_cast");
> +      *non_constant_p = true;
> +      return t;
> +    }
> +
> +  if (!tree_fits_shwi_p (TYPE_SIZE_UNIT (TREE_TYPE (t))))
> +    {
> +      if (!ctx->quiet)
> +	sorry_at (loc, "%qs cannot be constant evaluated because the "
> +		       "type is too large", "__builtin_bit_cast");
> +      *non_constant_p = true;
> +      return t;
> +    }
> +
> +  HOST_WIDE_INT len = tree_to_shwi (TYPE_SIZE_UNIT (TREE_TYPE (t)));
> +  if (len < 0 || (int) len != len)
> +    {
> +      if (!ctx->quiet)
> +	sorry_at (loc, "%qs cannot be constant evaluated because the "
> +		       "type is too large", "__builtin_bit_cast");
> +      *non_constant_p = true;
> +      return t;
> +    }
> +
> +  unsigned char buf[64];
> +  unsigned char *ptr, *mask;
> +  size_t alen = (size_t) len * 2;
> +  if (alen <= sizeof (buf))
> +    ptr = buf;
> +  else
> +    ptr = XNEWVEC (unsigned char, alen);
> +  mask = ptr + (size_t) len;
> +  /* At the beginning consider everything indeterminate.  */
> +  memset (mask, ~0, (size_t) len);
> +
> +  if (native_encode_initializer (op, ptr, len, 0, mask) != len)
> +    {
> +      if (!ctx->quiet)
> +	sorry_at (loc, "%qs cannot be constant evaluated because the "
> +		       "argument cannot be encoded", "__builtin_bit_cast");
> +      *non_constant_p = true;
> +      return t;
> +    }
> +
> +  if (can_native_interpret_type_p (TREE_TYPE (t)))
> +    if (tree r = native_interpret_expr (TREE_TYPE (t), ptr, len))
> +      {
> +	for (int i = 0; i < len; i++)
> +	  if (mask[i])
> +	    {
> +	      if (!ctx->quiet)
> +		error_at (loc, "%qs accessing uninitialized byte at offset %d",
> +			  "__builtin_bit_cast", i);
> +	      *non_constant_p = true;
> +	      r = t;
> +	      break;
> +	    }
> +	if (ptr != buf)
> +	  XDELETE (ptr);
> +	return r;
> +      }
> +
> +  if (TREE_CODE (TREE_TYPE (t)) == RECORD_TYPE)
> +    {
> +      tree r = cxx_native_interpret_aggregate (TREE_TYPE (t), ptr, 0, len,
> +					       mask, ctx, non_constant_p, loc);
> +      if (r != error_mark_node)
> +	{
> +	  if (ptr != buf)
> +	    XDELETE (ptr);
> +	  return r;
> +	}
> +      if (*non_constant_p)
> +	return t;
> +    }
> +
> +  if (!ctx->quiet)
> +    sorry_at (loc, "%qs cannot be constant evaluated because the "
> +		   "argument cannot be interpreted", "__builtin_bit_cast");
> +  *non_constant_p = true;
> +  return t;
> +}
> +
>   /* Subroutine of cxx_eval_constant_expression.
>      Evaluate a short-circuited logical expression T in the context
>      of a given constexpr CALL.  BAILOUT_VALUE is the value for
> @@ -6625,6 +7061,10 @@ cxx_eval_constant_expression (const cons
>         *non_constant_p = true;
>         return t;
>   
> +    case BIT_CAST_EXPR:
> +      r = cxx_eval_bit_cast (ctx, t, non_constant_p, overflow_p);
> +      break;
> +
>       default:
>         if (STATEMENT_CODE_P (TREE_CODE (t)))
>   	{
> @@ -8403,6 +8843,9 @@ potential_constant_expression_1 (tree t,
>       case ANNOTATE_EXPR:
>         return RECUR (TREE_OPERAND (t, 0), rval);
>   
> +    case BIT_CAST_EXPR:
> +      return RECUR (TREE_OPERAND (t, 0), rval);
> +
>       /* Coroutine await, yield and return expressions are not.  */
>       case CO_AWAIT_EXPR:
>       case CO_YIELD_EXPR:
> --- gcc/cp/cp-gimplify.c.jj	2020-10-08 10:58:21.939038527 +0200
> +++ gcc/cp/cp-gimplify.c	2020-11-02 13:42:18.711819616 +0100
> @@ -1568,6 +1568,11 @@ cp_genericize_r (tree *stmt_p, int *walk
>   				 cp_genericize_r, cp_walk_subtrees);
>         break;
>   
> +    case BIT_CAST_EXPR:
> +      *stmt_p = build1_loc (EXPR_LOCATION (stmt), VIEW_CONVERT_EXPR,
> +			    TREE_TYPE (stmt), TREE_OPERAND (stmt, 0));
> +      break;
> +
>       default:
>         if (IS_TYPE_OR_DECL_P (stmt))
>   	*walk_subtrees = 0;
> --- gcc/testsuite/g++.dg/cpp2a/bit-cast1.C.jj	2020-11-02 13:42:18.711819616 +0100
> +++ gcc/testsuite/g++.dg/cpp2a/bit-cast1.C	2020-11-02 13:42:18.711819616 +0100
> @@ -0,0 +1,47 @@
> +// { dg-do compile }
> +
> +struct S { short a, b; };
> +struct T { float a[16]; };
> +struct U { int b[16]; };
> +
> +#if __SIZEOF_FLOAT__ == __SIZEOF_INT__
> +int
> +f1 (float x)
> +{
> +  return __builtin_bit_cast (int, x);
> +}
> +#endif
> +
> +#if 2 * __SIZEOF_SHORT__ == __SIZEOF_INT__
> +S
> +f2 (int x)
> +{
> +  return __builtin_bit_cast (S, x);
> +}
> +
> +int
> +f3 (S x)
> +{
> +  return __builtin_bit_cast (int, x);
> +}
> +#endif
> +
> +#if __SIZEOF_FLOAT__ == __SIZEOF_INT__
> +U
> +f4 (T &x)
> +{
> +  return __builtin_bit_cast (U, x);
> +}
> +
> +T
> +f5 (int (&x)[16])
> +{
> +  return __builtin_bit_cast (T, x);
> +}
> +#endif
> +
> +int
> +f6 ()
> +{
> +  return __builtin_bit_cast (unsigned char, (signed char) 0);
> +}
> --- gcc/testsuite/g++.dg/cpp2a/bit-cast2.C.jj	2020-11-02 13:42:18.711819616 +0100
> +++ gcc/testsuite/g++.dg/cpp2a/bit-cast2.C	2020-11-02 13:42:18.711819616 +0100
> @@ -0,0 +1,57 @@
> +// { dg-do compile }
> +
> +struct S { ~S (); int s; };
> +S s;
> +struct V;				// { dg-message "forward declaration of 'struct V'" }
> +extern V v;				// { dg-error "'v' has incomplete type" }
> +extern V *p;
> +struct U { int a, b; };
> +U u;
> +
> +void
> +foo (int *q)
> +{
> +  __builtin_bit_cast (int, s);		// { dg-error "'__builtin_bit_cast' source type 'S' is not trivially copyable" }
> +  __builtin_bit_cast (S, 0);		// { dg-error "'__builtin_bit_cast' destination type 'S' is not trivially copyable" }
> +  __builtin_bit_cast (int &, q);	// { dg-error "'__builtin_bit_cast' destination type 'int&' is not trivially copyable" }
> +  __builtin_bit_cast (int [1], 0);	// { dg-error "'__builtin_bit_cast' destination type \[^\n\r]* is an array type" }
> +  __builtin_bit_cast (V, 0);		// { dg-error "invalid use of incomplete type 'struct V'" }
> +  __builtin_bit_cast (int, v);
> +  __builtin_bit_cast (int, *p);		// { dg-error "invalid use of incomplete type 'struct V'" }
> +  __builtin_bit_cast (U, 0);		// { dg-error "'__builtin_bit_cast' source size '\[0-9]*' not equal to destination type size '\[0-9]*'" }
> +  __builtin_bit_cast (int, u);		// { dg-error "'__builtin_bit_cast' source size '\[0-9]*' not equal to destination type size '\[0-9]*'" }
> +}
> +
> +template <int N>
> +void
> +bar (int *q)
> +{
> +  __builtin_bit_cast (int, s);		// { dg-error "'__builtin_bit_cast' source type 'S' is not trivially copyable" }
> +  __builtin_bit_cast (S, 0);		// { dg-error "'__builtin_bit_cast' destination type 'S' is not trivially copyable" }
> +  __builtin_bit_cast (int &, q);	// { dg-error "'__builtin_bit_cast' destination type 'int&' is not trivially copyable" }
> +  __builtin_bit_cast (int [1], 0);	// { dg-error "'__builtin_bit_cast' destination type \[^\n\r]* is an array type" }
> +  __builtin_bit_cast (V, 0);		// { dg-error "invalid use of incomplete type 'struct V'" }
> +  __builtin_bit_cast (int, *p);		// { dg-error "invalid use of incomplete type 'struct V'" }
> +  __builtin_bit_cast (U, 0);		// { dg-error "'__builtin_bit_cast' source size '\[0-9]*' not equal to destination type size '\[0-9]*'" }
> +  __builtin_bit_cast (int, u);		// { dg-error "'__builtin_bit_cast' source size '\[0-9]*' not equal to destination type size '\[0-9]*'" }
> +}
> +
> +template <typename T1, typename T2, typename T3, typename T4>
> +void
> +baz (T3 s, T4 *p, T1 *q)
> +{
> +  __builtin_bit_cast (int, s);		// { dg-error "'__builtin_bit_cast' source type 'S' is not trivially copyable" }
> +  __builtin_bit_cast (T3, 0);		// { dg-error "'__builtin_bit_cast' destination type 'S' is not trivially copyable" }
> +  __builtin_bit_cast (T1 &, q);		// { dg-error "'__builtin_bit_cast' destination type 'int&' is not trivially copyable" }
> +  __builtin_bit_cast (T2, 0);		// { dg-error "'__builtin_bit_cast' destination type \[^\n\r]* is an array type" }
> +  __builtin_bit_cast (T4, 0);		// { dg-error "invalid use of incomplete type 'struct V'" }
> +  __builtin_bit_cast (int, *p);		// { dg-error "invalid use of incomplete type 'struct V'" }
> +  __builtin_bit_cast (U, (T1) 0);	// { dg-error "'__builtin_bit_cast' source size '\[0-9]*' not equal to destination type size '\[0-9]*'" }
> +  __builtin_bit_cast (T1, u);		// { dg-error "'__builtin_bit_cast' source size '\[0-9]*' not equal to destination type size '\[0-9]*'" }
> +}
> +
> +void
> +qux (int *q)
> +{
> +  baz <int, int [1], S, V> (s, p, q);
> +}
> --- gcc/testsuite/g++.dg/cpp2a/bit-cast3.C.jj	2020-11-02 13:42:18.711819616 +0100
> +++ gcc/testsuite/g++.dg/cpp2a/bit-cast3.C	2020-11-02 13:42:18.711819616 +0100
> @@ -0,0 +1,229 @@
> +// { dg-do compile { target c++11 } }
> +
> +template <typename To, typename From>
> +constexpr To
> +bit_cast (const From &from)
> +{
> +  return __builtin_bit_cast (To, from);
> +}
> +
> +template <typename To, typename From>
> +constexpr bool
> +check (const From &from)
> +{
> +  return bit_cast <From> (bit_cast <To> (from)) == from;
> +}
> +
> +struct A
> +{
> +  int a, b, c;
> +  constexpr bool operator == (const A &x) const
> +  {
> +    return x.a == a && x.b == b && x.c == c;
> +  }
> +};
> +
> +struct B
> +{
> +  unsigned a[3];
> +  constexpr bool operator == (const B &x) const
> +  {
> +    return x.a[0] == a[0] && x.a[1] == a[1] && x.a[2] == a[2];
> +  }
> +};
> +
> +struct C
> +{
> +  char a[2][3][2];
> +  constexpr bool operator == (const C &x) const
> +  {
> +    return x.a[0][0][0] == a[0][0][0]
> +	   && x.a[0][0][1] == a[0][0][1]
> +	   && x.a[0][1][0] == a[0][1][0]
> +	   && x.a[0][1][1] == a[0][1][1]
> +	   && x.a[0][2][0] == a[0][2][0]
> +	   && x.a[0][2][1] == a[0][2][1]
> +	   && x.a[1][0][0] == a[1][0][0]
> +	   && x.a[1][0][1] == a[1][0][1]
> +	   && x.a[1][1][0] == a[1][1][0]
> +	   && x.a[1][1][1] == a[1][1][1]
> +	   && x.a[1][2][0] == a[1][2][0]
> +	   && x.a[1][2][1] == a[1][2][1];
> +  }
> +};
> +
> +struct D
> +{
> +  int a, b;
> +  constexpr bool operator == (const D &x) const
> +  {
> +    return x.a == a && x.b == b;
> +  }
> +};
> +
> +struct E {};
> +struct F { char c, d, e, f; };
> +struct G : public D, E, F
> +{
> +  int g;
> +  constexpr bool operator == (const G &x) const
> +  {
> +    return x.a == a && x.b == b && x.c == c && x.d == d
> +	   && x.e == e && x.f == f && x.g == g;
> +  }
> +};
> +
> +struct H
> +{
> +  int a, b[2], c;
> +  constexpr bool operator == (const H &x) const
> +  {
> +    return x.a == a && x.b[0] == b[0] && x.b[1] == b[1] && x.c == c;
> +  }
> +};
> +
> +#if __SIZEOF_INT__ == 4
> +struct I
> +{
> +  int a;
> +  int b : 3;
> +  int c : 24;
> +  int d : 5;
> +  int e;
> +  constexpr bool operator == (const I &x) const
> +  {
> +    return x.a == a && x.b == b && x.c == c && x.d == d && x.e == e;
> +  }
> +};
> +#endif
> +
> +#if __SIZEOF_INT__ == 4 && __SIZEOF_LONG_LONG__ == 8
> +struct J
> +{
> +  long long int a, b : 11, c : 3, d : 37, e : 1, f : 10, g : 2, h;
> +  constexpr bool operator == (const J &x) const
> +  {
> +    return x.a == a && x.b == b && x.c == c && x.d == d && x.e == e
> +	   && x.f == f && x.g == g && x.h == h;
> +  }
> +};
> +
> +struct K
> +{
> +  long long int a, b, c;
> +  constexpr bool operator == (const K &x) const
> +  {
> +    return x.a == a && x.b == b && x.c == c;
> +  }
> +};
> +
> +struct M
> +{
> +  signed a : 6, b : 7, c : 6, d : 5;
> +  unsigned char e;
> +  unsigned int f;
> +  long long int g;
> +  constexpr bool operator == (const M &x) const
> +  {
> +    return x.a == a && x.b == b && x.c == c && x.d == d && x.e == e
> +	   && x.f == f && x.g == g;
> +  }
> +};
> +
> +struct N
> +{
> +  unsigned long long int a, b;
> +  constexpr bool operator == (const N &x) const
> +  {
> +    return x.a == a && x.b == b;
> +  }
> +};
> +#endif
> +
> +static_assert (check <unsigned int> (0), "");
> +static_assert (check <long long int> (0xdeadbeeffeedbac1ULL), "");
> +static_assert (check <signed char> ((unsigned char) 42), "");
> +static_assert (check <char> ((unsigned char) 42), "");
> +static_assert (check <unsigned char> ((unsigned char) 42), "");
> +static_assert (check <signed char> ((signed char) 42), "");
> +static_assert (check <char> ((signed char) 42), "");
> +static_assert (check <unsigned char> ((signed char) 42), "");
> +static_assert (check <signed char> ((char) 42), "");
> +static_assert (check <char> ((char) 42), "");
> +static_assert (check <unsigned char> ((char) 42), "");
> +#if __SIZEOF_INT__ == __SIZEOF_FLOAT__
> +static_assert (check <int> (2.5f), "");
> +static_assert (check <unsigned int> (136.5f), "");
> +#endif
> +#if __SIZEOF_LONG_LONG__ == __SIZEOF_DOUBLE__
> +static_assert (check <long long> (2.5), "");
> +static_assert (check <long long unsigned> (123456.75), "");
> +#endif
> +
> +static_assert (check <B> (A{ 1, 2, 3 }), "");
> +static_assert (check <A> (B{ 4, 5, 6 }), "");
> +
> +#if __SIZEOF_INT__ == 4
> +static_assert (check <C> (A{ 7, 8, 9 }), "");
> +static_assert (check <C> (B{ 10, 11, 12 }), "");
> +static_assert (check <A> (C{ { { { 13, 14 }, { 15, 16 }, { 17, 18 } },
> +			       { { 19, 20 }, { 21, 22 }, { 23, 24 } } } }), "");
> +constexpr unsigned char c[] = { 1, 2, 3, 4 };
> +#if __BYTE_ORDER__ == __ORDER_LITTLE_ENDIAN__
> +static_assert (bit_cast <unsigned int> (c) == 0x04030201U, "");
> +#elif __BYTE_ORDER__ == __ORDER_BIG_ENDIAN__
> +static_assert (bit_cast <unsigned int> (c) == 0x01020304U, "");
> +#endif
> +
> +#if __cplusplus >= 201703L
> +static_assert (check <G> (H { 0x12345678, { 0x23456789, 0x5a876543 }, 0x3ba78654 }), "");
> +#endif
> +constexpr int d[] = { 0x12345678, 0x23456789, 0x5a876543, 0x3ba78654 };
> +static_assert (bit_cast <G> (d) == bit_cast <G> (H { 0x12345678, { 0x23456789, 0x5a876543 }, 0x3ba78654 }), "");
> +
> +#if __BYTE_ORDER__ == __ORDER_LITTLE_ENDIAN__
> +static_assert (bit_cast <I> (A { 0x7efa3412, 0x5a876543, 0x1eeffeed })
> +	       == I { 0x7efa3412, 3, 0x50eca8, 0xb, 0x1eeffeed }, "");
> +static_assert (bit_cast <A> (I { 0x7efa3412, 3, 0x50eca8, 0xb, 0x1eeffeed })
> +	       == A { 0x7efa3412, 0x5a876543, 0x1eeffeed }, "");
> +#elif __BYTE_ORDER__ == __ORDER_BIG_ENDIAN__
> +static_assert (bit_cast <I> (A { 0x7efa3412, 0x5a876543, 0x1eeffeed })
> +	       == I { 0x7efa3412, 2, -0x2bc4d6, 0x3, 0x1eeffeed }, "");
> +static_assert (bit_cast <A> (I { 0x7efa3412, 2, -0x2bc4d6, 0x3, 0x1eeffeed })
> +	       == A { 0x7efa3412, 0x5a876543, 0x1eeffeed }, "");
> +#endif
> +#endif
> +
> +#if 2 * __SIZEOF_INT__ == __SIZEOF_LONG_LONG__ && __SIZEOF_INT__ >= 4
> +constexpr unsigned long long a = 0xdeadbeeffee1deadULL;
> +constexpr unsigned b[] = { 0xfeedbacU, 0xbeeffeedU };
> +#if __BYTE_ORDER__ == __ORDER_LITTLE_ENDIAN__
> +static_assert (bit_cast <D> (a) == D { int (0xfee1deadU), int (0xdeadbeefU) }, "");
> +static_assert (bit_cast <unsigned long long> (b) == 0xbeeffeed0feedbacULL, "");
> +#elif __BYTE_ORDER__ == __ORDER_BIG_ENDIAN__
> +static_assert (bit_cast <D> (a) == D { int (0xdeadbeefU), int (0xfee1deadU) }, "");
> +static_assert (bit_cast <unsigned long long> (b) == 0x0feedbacbeeffeedULL, "");
> +#endif
> +#endif
> +
> +#if __SIZEOF_INT__ == 4 && __SIZEOF_LONG_LONG__ == 8
> +#if __BYTE_ORDER__ == __ORDER_LITTLE_ENDIAN__
> +static_assert (bit_cast <J> (K { 0x0feedbacdeadbeefLL, 7862463375103529997LL, 0x0feedbacdeadbeefLL })
> +	       == J { 0x0feedbacdeadbeefLL, -1011, 2, -0xbacdeadbeLL, -1, -303, 1, 0x0feedbacdeadbeefLL }, "");
> +static_assert (bit_cast <K> (J { 0x0feedbacdeadbeefLL, -1011, 2, -0xbacdeadbeLL, -1, -303, 1, 0x0feedbacdeadbeefLL })
> +	       == K { 0x0feedbacdeadbeefLL, 7862463375103529997LL, 0x0feedbacdeadbeefLL }, "");
> +static_assert (bit_cast <M> (N { 0xfeedbacdeadbeef8ULL, 0x123456789abcde42ULL })
> +	       == M { -8, 59, 31, -5, 234, 0xfeedbacdU, 0x123456789abcde42ULL }, "");
> +static_assert (bit_cast <N> (M { -8, 59, 31, -5, 234, 0xfeedbacdU, 0x123456789abcde42ULL })
> +	       == N { 0xfeedbacdeadbeef8ULL, 0x123456789abcde42ULL }, "");
> +#elif __BYTE_ORDER__ == __ORDER_BIG_ENDIAN__
> +static_assert (bit_cast <J> (K { 0x0feedbacdeadbeefLL, -9103311533965288635LL, 0x0feedbacdeadbeefLL })
> +	       == J { 0x0feedbacdeadbeefLL, -1011, 2, -0xbacdeadbeLL, -1, -303, 1, 0x0feedbacdeadbeefLL }, "");
> +static_assert (bit_cast <K> (J { 0x0feedbacdeadbeefLL, -1011, 2, -0xbacdeadbeLL, -1, -303, 1, 0x0feedbacdeadbeefLL })
> +	       == K { 0x0feedbacdeadbeefLL, -9103311533965288635LL, 0x0feedbacdeadbeefLL }, "");
> +static_assert (bit_cast <M> (N { 0xfeedbacdeadbeef8ULL, 0x123456789abcde42ULL })
> +	       == M { -1, -35, -19, -6, 205, 0xeadbeef8U, 0x123456789abcde42ULL }, "");
> +static_assert (bit_cast <N> (M { -1, -35, -19, -6, 205, 0xeadbeef8U, 0x123456789abcde42ULL })
> +	       == N { 0xfeedbacdeadbeef8ULL, 0x123456789abcde42ULL }, "");
> +#endif
> +#endif
> --- gcc/testsuite/g++.dg/cpp2a/bit-cast4.C.jj	2020-11-02 13:42:18.711819616 +0100
> +++ gcc/testsuite/g++.dg/cpp2a/bit-cast4.C	2020-11-02 13:42:18.711819616 +0100
> @@ -0,0 +1,44 @@
> +// { dg-do compile { target c++11 } }
> +
> +template <typename To, typename From>
> +constexpr To
> +bit_cast (const From &from)
> +{
> +  return __builtin_bit_cast (To, from);
> +}
> +// { dg-error "'__builtin_bit_cast' is not a constant expression because 'U' is a union type" "U" { target *-*-* } 7 }
> +// { dg-error "'__builtin_bit_cast' is not a constant expression because 'const U' is a union type" "const U" { target *-*-* } 7 }
> +// { dg-error "'__builtin_bit_cast' is not a constant expression because 'B' contains a union type" "B" { target *-*-* } 7 }
> +// { dg-error "'__builtin_bit_cast' is not a constant expression because 'char\\\*' is a pointer type" "char ptr" { target *-*-* } 7 }
> +// { dg-error "'__builtin_bit_cast' is not a constant expression because 'const int\\\*' is a pointer type" "const int ptr" { target *-*-* } 7 }
> +// { dg-error "'__builtin_bit_cast' is not a constant expression because 'C' contains a pointer type" "C" { target *-*-* } 7 }
> +// { dg-error "'__builtin_bit_cast' is not a constant expression because 'const C' contains a pointer type" "const C" { target *-*-* } 7 }
> +// { dg-error "'__builtin_bit_cast' is not a constant expression because 'int D::\\\*' is a pointer to member type" "ptrmem 1" { target *-*-* } 7 }
> +// { dg-error "'__builtin_bit_cast' is not a constant expression because 'int \\\(D::\\\*\\\)\\\(\\\) const' is a pointer to member type" "ptrmem 2" { target *-*-* } 7 }
> +// { dg-error "'__builtin_bit_cast' is not a constant expression because 'int \\\(D::\\\*\\\)\\\(\\\)' is a pointer to member type" "ptrmem 3" { target *-*-* } 7 }
> +
> +union U { int u; };
> +struct A { int a; U b; };
> +struct B : public A { int c; };
> +struct C { const int *p; };
> +constexpr int a[] = { 1, 2, 3 };
> +constexpr const int *b = &a[0];
> +constexpr C c = { b };
> +struct D { int d; constexpr int foo () const { return 1; } };
> +constexpr int D::*d = &D::d;
> +constexpr int (D::*e) () const = &D::foo;
> +struct E { __INTPTR_TYPE__ e, f; };
> +constexpr E f = { 1, 2 };
> +constexpr U g { 0 };
> +
> +constexpr auto z = bit_cast <U> (0);
> +constexpr auto y = bit_cast <int> (g);
> +constexpr auto x = bit_cast <B> (a);
> +constexpr auto w = bit_cast <char *> ((__INTPTR_TYPE__) 0);
> +constexpr auto v = bit_cast <__UINTPTR_TYPE__> (b);
> +constexpr auto u = bit_cast <C> ((__INTPTR_TYPE__) 0);
> +constexpr auto t = bit_cast <__INTPTR_TYPE__> (c);
> +constexpr auto s = bit_cast <__INTPTR_TYPE__> (d);
> +constexpr auto r = bit_cast <E> (e);
> +constexpr auto q = bit_cast <int D::*> ((__INTPTR_TYPE__) 0);
> +constexpr auto p = bit_cast <int (D::*) ()> (f);
> --- gcc/testsuite/g++.dg/cpp2a/bit-cast5.C.jj	2020-11-02 13:42:18.711819616 +0100
> +++ gcc/testsuite/g++.dg/cpp2a/bit-cast5.C	2020-11-02 13:42:18.711819616 +0100
> @@ -0,0 +1,69 @@
> +// { dg-do compile { target { c++20 && { ilp32 || lp64 } } } }
> +
> +struct A { signed char a, b, c, d, e, f; };
> +struct B {};
> +struct C { B a, b; short c; B d; };
> +struct D { int a : 4, b : 24, c : 4; };
> +struct E { B a, b; short c; };
> +struct F { B a; signed char b, c; B d; };
> +
> +constexpr bool
> +f1 ()
> +{
> +  A a;
> +  a.c = 23; a.d = 42;
> +  C b = __builtin_bit_cast (C, a); // OK
> +  return false;
> +}
> +
> +constexpr bool
> +f2 ()
> +{
> +  A a;
> +  a.a = 1; a.b = 2; a.c = 3; a.e = 4; a.f = 5;
> +  C b = __builtin_bit_cast (C, a);	// { dg-error "'__builtin_bit_cast' accessing uninitialized byte at offset 3" }
> +  return false;
> +}
> +
> +constexpr bool
> +f3 ()
> +{
> +  D a;
> +  a.b = 1;
> +  F b = __builtin_bit_cast (F, a); // OK
> +  return false;
> +}
> +
> +constexpr bool
> +f4 ()
> +{
> +  D a;
> +  a.b = 1; a.c = 2;
> +  E b = __builtin_bit_cast (E, a); // OK
> +  return false;
> +}
> +
> +constexpr bool
> +f5 ()
> +{
> +  D a;
> +  a.b = 1;
> +  E b = __builtin_bit_cast (E, a);	// { dg-error "'__builtin_bit_cast' accessing uninitialized byte at offset 3" }
> +  return false;
> +}
> +
> +constexpr bool
> +f6 ()
> +{
> +  D a;
> +  a.c = 1;
> +  E b = __builtin_bit_cast (E, a);	// { dg-error "'__builtin_bit_cast' accessing uninitialized byte at offset 2" }
> +  return false;
> +}
> +
> +constexpr bool a = f1 ();
> +constexpr bool b = f2 ();
> +constexpr bool c = f3 ();
> +constexpr bool d = f4 ();
> +constexpr bool e = f5 ();
> +constexpr bool f = f6 ();
> 
> 
> 	Jakub
> 



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