[PATCH] [RFC, PGO+LTO] Missed function specialization + partial devirtualization

Martin Liška mliska@suse.cz
Tue Jun 18 05:51:00 GMT 2019


On 6/18/19 3:45 AM, Xiong Hu Luo wrote:

Hello.

Thank you for the interest in the area.

> This patch aims to fix PR69678 caused by PGO indirect call profiling bugs.
> Currently the default instrument function can only find the indirect function
> that called more than 50% with an incorrect count number returned.

Can you please explain what you mean by 'an incorrect count number returned'?

>  This patch
> leverages the "--param indir-call-topn-profile=1" and enables multiple indirect

Note that I've remove indir-call-topn-profile last week, the patch will not apply
on current trunk. However, I can help you how to adapt single-value counters
to support tracking of multiple values.

> targets profiling and use in LTO-WPA and LTO-LTRANS stage, as a result, function
> specialization, profiling, partial devirtualization, inlining and cloning could
> be done successfully based on it.

This decision is definitely big question for Honza?

> Performance can get improved 3x (1.7 sec -> 0.4 sec) on simple tests.
> Details are:
>   1.  When do PGO with indir-call-topn-profile, the gcda data format is not
>   supported in ipa-profile pass,

If you take a look at gcc/ipa-profile.c:195 you can see how the probability
is propagated to IPA passes. Why is that not sufficient?

Martin

> so add variables to pass the information
>   through passes, and postpone gimple_ic to ipa-profile like default as inline
>   pass will decide whether it is benefit to transform indirect call.
>   2.  Enable LTO WPA/LTRANS stage multiple indirect call targets analysis for
>   profile full support in ipa passes and cgraph_edge functions.
>   3.  Fix various hidden speculative call ICEs exposed after enabling this
>   feature when running SPEC2017.
>   4.  Add 1 in module testcase and 2 cross module testcases.
>   5.  TODOs:
>     5.1.  Some reference info will be dropped from WPA to LTRANS, so
>     reference check will be difficult in LTRANS, need replace the strstr
>     with reference compare.
>     5.2.  Some duplicate code need be removed as top1 and topn share same logic.
>     Actually top1 related logic could be eliminated totally as topn includes it.
>     5.3.  Split patch maybe needed as too big but not sure how many would be
>     reasonable.
>   6.  Performance result for ppc64le:
>     6.1.  Representative test: indir-call-prof-topn.c runtime improved from
>     1.7s to 0.4s.
>     6.2.  SPEC2017 peakrate:
>         523.xalancbmk_r (+4.87%); 538.imagick_r (+4.59%); 511.povray_r (+13.33%);
>         525.x264_r (-5.29%).
>         No big changes of other benchmarks.
>         Option: -Ofast -mcpu=power8
>         PASS1_OPTIMIZE: -fprofile-generate --param indir-call-topn-profile=1 -flto
>         PASS2_OPTIMIZE: -fprofile-use --param indir-call-topn-profile=1 -flto
>         -fprofile-correction
>     6.3.  No performance change on PHP benchmark.
>   7.  Bootstrap and regression test passed on Power8-LE.
> 
> gcc/ChangeLog
> 
> 	2019-06-17  Xiong Hu Luo  <luoxhu@linux.ibm.com>
> 
> 	PR ipa/69678
> 	* cgraph.c (cgraph_node::get_create): Copy profile_id.
> 	(cgraph_edge::speculative_call_info): Find real
> 	reference for indirect targets.
> 	(cgraph_edge::resolve_speculation): Add speculative code process
> 	for indirect targets.
> 	(cgraph_edge::redirect_call_stmt_to_callee): Likewise.
> 	(cgraph_node::verify_node): Likewise.
> 	* cgraph.h (common_target_ids): New variable.
> 	(common_target_probabilities): Likewise.
> 	(num_of_ics): Likewise.
> 	* cgraphclones.c (cgraph_node::create_clone): Copy profile_id.
> 	* ipa-inline.c (inline_small_functions): Add iterator update.
> 	* ipa-profile.c (ipa_profile_generate_summary): Add indirect
> 	multiple targets logic.
> 	(ipa_profile): Likewise.
> 	* ipa-utils.c (ipa_merge_profiles): Clone speculative src's
> 	referrings to dst.
> 	* ipa.c (process_references): Fix typo.
> 	* lto-cgraph.c (lto_output_edge): Add indirect multiple targets
> 	logic.
> 	(input_edge): Likewise.
> 	* predict.c (dump_prediction): Revome edges count assert to be
> 	precise.
> 	* tree-profile.c (gimple_gen_ic_profiler): Use the new variable
> 	__gcov_indirect_call.counters and __gcov_indirect_call.callee.
> 	(gimple_gen_ic_func_profiler): Likewise.
> 	(pass_ipa_tree_profile::gate): Fix comment typos.
> 	* tree-inline.c (copy_bb): Duplicate all the speculative edges
> 	if indirect call contains multiple speculative targets.
> 	* value-prof.c (check_counter): Proportion the counter for
> 	multiple targets.
> 	(ic_transform_topn): New function.
> 	(gimple_ic_transform): Handle topn case, fix comment typos.
> 
> gcc/testsuite/ChangeLog
> 
> 	2019-06-17  Xiong Hu Luo  <luoxhu@linux.ibm.com>
> 
> 	PR ipa/69678
> 	* gcc.dg/tree-prof/indir-call-prof-topn.c: New testcase.
> 	* gcc.dg/tree-prof/crossmodule-indir-call-topn-1.c: New testcase.
> 	* gcc.dg/tree-prof/crossmodule-indir-call-topn-1a.c: New testcase.
> 	* gcc.dg/tree-prof/crossmodule-indir-call-topn-2.c: New testcase.
> ---
>  gcc/cgraph.c                                  |  38 +++-
>  gcc/cgraph.h                                  |   9 +-
>  gcc/cgraphclones.c                            |   1 +
>  gcc/ipa-inline.c                              |   3 +
>  gcc/ipa-profile.c                             | 185 +++++++++++++++++-
>  gcc/ipa-utils.c                               |   5 +
>  gcc/ipa.c                                     |   2 +-
>  gcc/lto-cgraph.c                              |  38 ++++
>  gcc/predict.c                                 |   1 -
>  .../tree-prof/crossmodule-indir-call-topn-1.c |  35 ++++
>  .../crossmodule-indir-call-topn-1a.c          |  22 +++
>  .../tree-prof/crossmodule-indir-call-topn-2.c |  42 ++++
>  .../gcc.dg/tree-prof/indir-call-prof-topn.c   |  38 ++++
>  gcc/tree-inline.c                             |  97 +++++----
>  gcc/tree-profile.c                            |  12 +-
>  gcc/value-prof.c                              | 146 +++++++++++++-
>  16 files changed, 606 insertions(+), 68 deletions(-)
>  create mode 100644 gcc/testsuite/gcc.dg/tree-prof/crossmodule-indir-call-topn-1.c
>  create mode 100644 gcc/testsuite/gcc.dg/tree-prof/crossmodule-indir-call-topn-1a.c
>  create mode 100644 gcc/testsuite/gcc.dg/tree-prof/crossmodule-indir-call-topn-2.c
>  create mode 100644 gcc/testsuite/gcc.dg/tree-prof/indir-call-prof-topn.c
> 
> diff --git a/gcc/cgraph.c b/gcc/cgraph.c
> index de82316d4b1..0d373a67d1b 100644
> --- a/gcc/cgraph.c
> +++ b/gcc/cgraph.c
> @@ -553,6 +553,7 @@ cgraph_node::get_create (tree decl)
>  	fprintf (dump_file, "Introduced new external node "
>  		 "(%s) and turned into root of the clone tree.\n",
>  		 node->dump_name ());
> +      node->profile_id = first_clone->profile_id;
>      }
>    else if (dump_file)
>      fprintf (dump_file, "Introduced new external node "
> @@ -1110,6 +1111,7 @@ cgraph_edge::speculative_call_info (cgraph_edge *&direct,
>    int i;
>    cgraph_edge *e2;
>    cgraph_edge *e = this;
> +  cgraph_node *referred_node;
>  
>    if (!e->indirect_unknown_callee)
>      for (e2 = e->caller->indirect_calls;
> @@ -1142,8 +1144,20 @@ cgraph_edge::speculative_call_info (cgraph_edge *&direct,
>  	&& ((ref->stmt && ref->stmt == e->call_stmt)
>  	    || (!ref->stmt && ref->lto_stmt_uid == e->lto_stmt_uid)))
>        {
> -	reference = ref;
> -	break;
> +	if (e2->indirect_info && e2->indirect_info->num_of_ics)
> +	  {
> +	    referred_node = dyn_cast<cgraph_node *> (ref->referred);
> +	    if (strstr (e->callee->name (), referred_node->name ()))
> +	      {
> +		reference = ref;
> +		break;
> +	      }
> +	  }
> +	else
> +	  {
> +	    reference = ref;
> +	    break;
> +	  }
>        }
>  
>    /* Speculative edge always consist of all three components - direct edge,
> @@ -1199,7 +1213,14 @@ cgraph_edge::resolve_speculation (tree callee_decl)
>           in the functions inlined through it.  */
>      }
>    edge->count += e2->count;
> -  edge->speculative = false;
> +  if (edge->indirect_info && edge->indirect_info->num_of_ics)
> +    {
> +      edge->indirect_info->num_of_ics--;
> +      if (edge->indirect_info->num_of_ics == 0)
> +	edge->speculative = false;
> +    }
> +  else
> +    edge->speculative = false;
>    e2->speculative = false;
>    ref->remove_reference ();
>    if (e2->indirect_unknown_callee || e2->inline_failed)
> @@ -1333,7 +1354,14 @@ cgraph_edge::redirect_call_stmt_to_callee (void)
>  	  e->caller->set_call_stmt_including_clones (e->call_stmt, new_stmt,
>  						     false);
>  	  e->count = gimple_bb (e->call_stmt)->count;
> -	  e2->speculative = false;
> +	  if (e2->indirect_info && e2->indirect_info->num_of_ics)
> +	    {
> +	      e2->indirect_info->num_of_ics--;
> +	      if (e2->indirect_info->num_of_ics == 0)
> +		e2->speculative = false;
> +	    }
> +	  else
> +	    e2->speculative = false;
>  	  e2->count = gimple_bb (e2->call_stmt)->count;
>  	  ref->speculative = false;
>  	  ref->stmt = NULL;
> @@ -3407,7 +3435,7 @@ cgraph_node::verify_node (void)
>  
>        for (e = callees; e; e = e->next_callee)
>  	{
> -	  if (!e->aux)
> +	  if (!e->aux && !e->speculative)
>  	    {
>  	      error ("edge %s->%s has no corresponding call_stmt",
>  		     identifier_to_locale (e->caller->name ()),
> diff --git a/gcc/cgraph.h b/gcc/cgraph.h
> index c294602d762..ed0fbc60432 100644
> --- a/gcc/cgraph.h
> +++ b/gcc/cgraph.h
> @@ -24,6 +24,7 @@ along with GCC; see the file COPYING3.  If not see
>  #include "profile-count.h"
>  #include "ipa-ref.h"
>  #include "plugin-api.h"
> +#include "gcov-io.h"
>  
>  extern void debuginfo_early_init (void);
>  extern void debuginfo_init (void);
> @@ -1638,11 +1639,17 @@ struct GTY(()) cgraph_indirect_call_info
>    int param_index;
>    /* ECF flags determined from the caller.  */
>    int ecf_flags;
> -  /* Profile_id of common target obtrained from profile.  */
> +  /* Profile_id of common target obtained from profile.  */
>    int common_target_id;
>    /* Probability that call will land in function with COMMON_TARGET_ID.  */
>    int common_target_probability;
>  
> +  /* Profile_id of common target obtained from profile.  */
> +  int common_target_ids[GCOV_ICALL_TOPN_NCOUNTS / 2];
> +  /* Probabilities that call will land in function with COMMON_TARGET_IDS.  */
> +  int common_target_probabilities[GCOV_ICALL_TOPN_NCOUNTS / 2];
> +  unsigned num_of_ics;
> +
>    /* Set when the call is a virtual call with the parameter being the
>       associated object pointer rather than a simple direct call.  */
>    unsigned polymorphic : 1;
> diff --git a/gcc/cgraphclones.c b/gcc/cgraphclones.c
> index 15f7e119d18..94f424bc10c 100644
> --- a/gcc/cgraphclones.c
> +++ b/gcc/cgraphclones.c
> @@ -467,6 +467,7 @@ cgraph_node::create_clone (tree new_decl, profile_count prof_count,
>    new_node->icf_merged = icf_merged;
>    new_node->merged_comdat = merged_comdat;
>    new_node->thunk = thunk;
> +  new_node->profile_id = profile_id;
>  
>    new_node->clone.tree_map = NULL;
>    new_node->clone.args_to_skip = args_to_skip;
> diff --git a/gcc/ipa-inline.c b/gcc/ipa-inline.c
> index 360c3de3289..ef2b217b3f9 100644
> --- a/gcc/ipa-inline.c
> +++ b/gcc/ipa-inline.c
> @@ -1866,12 +1866,15 @@ inline_small_functions (void)
>  	}
>        if (has_speculative)
>  	for (edge = node->callees; edge; edge = next)
> +	{
> +	  next = edge->next_callee;
>  	  if (edge->speculative && !speculation_useful_p (edge,
>  							  edge->aux != NULL))
>  	    {
>  	      edge->resolve_speculation ();
>  	      update = true;
>  	    }
> +	}
>        if (update)
>  	{
>  	  struct cgraph_node *where = node->global.inlined_to
> diff --git a/gcc/ipa-profile.c b/gcc/ipa-profile.c
> index de9563d808c..d04476295a0 100644
> --- a/gcc/ipa-profile.c
> +++ b/gcc/ipa-profile.c
> @@ -168,6 +168,10 @@ ipa_profile_generate_summary (void)
>    struct cgraph_node *node;
>    gimple_stmt_iterator gsi;
>    basic_block bb;
> +  enum hist_type type;
> +
> +  type = PARAM_VALUE (PARAM_INDIR_CALL_TOPN_PROFILE) ? HIST_TYPE_INDIR_CALL_TOPN
> +						     : HIST_TYPE_INDIR_CALL;
>  
>    hash_table<histogram_hash> hashtable (10);
>    
> @@ -186,10 +190,10 @@ ipa_profile_generate_summary (void)
>  		  histogram_value h;
>  		  h = gimple_histogram_value_of_type
>  			(DECL_STRUCT_FUNCTION (node->decl),
> -			 stmt, HIST_TYPE_INDIR_CALL);
> +			 stmt, type);
>  		  /* No need to do sanity check: gimple_ic_transform already
>  		     takes away bad histograms.  */
> -		  if (h)
> +		  if (h && type == HIST_TYPE_INDIR_CALL)
>  		    {
>  		      /* counter 0 is target, counter 1 is number of execution we called target,
>  			 counter 2 is total number of executions.  */
> @@ -212,6 +216,46 @@ ipa_profile_generate_summary (void)
>  		      gimple_remove_histogram_value (DECL_STRUCT_FUNCTION (node->decl),
>  						      stmt, h);
>  		    }
> +		  else if (h && type == HIST_TYPE_INDIR_CALL_TOPN)
> +		    {
> +		      unsigned j;
> +		      struct cgraph_edge *e = node->get_edge (stmt);
> +		      if (e && !e->indirect_unknown_callee)
> +			continue;
> +
> +		      e->indirect_info->num_of_ics = 0;
> +		      for (j = 1; j < h->n_counters; j += 2)
> +			{
> +			  if (h->hvalue.counters[j] == 0)
> +			    continue;
> +
> +			  e->indirect_info->common_target_ids[j / 2]
> +			    = h->hvalue.counters[j];
> +			  e->indirect_info->common_target_probabilities[j / 2]
> +			    = GCOV_COMPUTE_SCALE (
> +			      h->hvalue.counters[j + 1],
> +			      gimple_bb (stmt)->count.ipa ().to_gcov_type ());
> +			  if (e->indirect_info
> +				->common_target_probabilities[j / 2]
> +			      > REG_BR_PROB_BASE)
> +			    {
> +			      if (dump_file)
> +				fprintf (dump_file,
> +					 "Probability capped to 1\n");
> +			      e->indirect_info
> +				->common_target_probabilities[j / 2]
> +				= REG_BR_PROB_BASE;
> +			    }
> +			  e->indirect_info->num_of_ics++;
> +			}
> +
> +		      gcc_assert (e->indirect_info->num_of_ics
> +				  <= GCOV_ICALL_TOPN_NCOUNTS / 2);
> +
> +		      gimple_remove_histogram_value (DECL_STRUCT_FUNCTION (
> +						       node->decl),
> +						     stmt, h);
> +		    }
>  		}
>  	      time += estimate_num_insns (stmt, &eni_time_weights);
>  	      size += estimate_num_insns (stmt, &eni_size_weights);
> @@ -492,6 +536,7 @@ ipa_profile (void)
>    int nindirect = 0, ncommon = 0, nunknown = 0, nuseless = 0, nconverted = 0;
>    int nmismatch = 0, nimpossible = 0;
>    bool node_map_initialized = false;
> +  gcov_type threshold;
>  
>    if (dump_file)
>      dump_histogram (dump_file, histogram);
> @@ -500,14 +545,12 @@ ipa_profile (void)
>        overall_time += histogram[i]->count * histogram[i]->time;
>        overall_size += histogram[i]->size;
>      }
> +  threshold = 0;
>    if (overall_time)
>      {
> -      gcov_type threshold;
> -
>        gcc_assert (overall_size);
>  
>        cutoff = (overall_time * PARAM_VALUE (HOT_BB_COUNT_WS_PERMILLE) + 500) / 1000;
> -      threshold = 0;
>        for (i = 0; cumulated < cutoff; i++)
>  	{
>  	  cumulated += histogram[i]->count * histogram[i]->time;
> @@ -543,7 +586,7 @@ ipa_profile (void)
>    histogram.release ();
>    histogram_pool.release ();
>  
> -  /* Produce speculative calls: we saved common traget from porfiling into
> +  /* Produce speculative calls: we saved common target from profiling into
>       e->common_target_id.  Now, at link time, we can look up corresponding
>       function node and produce speculative call.  */
>  
> @@ -558,7 +601,8 @@ ipa_profile (void)
>  	{
>  	  if (n->count.initialized_p ())
>  	    nindirect++;
> -	  if (e->indirect_info->common_target_id)
> +	  if (e->indirect_info->common_target_id
> +	      || (e->indirect_info && e->indirect_info->num_of_ics == 1))
>  	    {
>  	      if (!node_map_initialized)
>  	        init_node_map (false);
> @@ -613,7 +657,7 @@ ipa_profile (void)
>  		      if (dump_file)
>  			fprintf (dump_file,
>  				 "Not speculating: "
> -				 "parameter count mistmatch\n");
> +				 "parameter count mismatch\n");
>  		    }
>  		  else if (e->indirect_info->polymorphic
>  			   && !opt_for_fn (n->decl, flag_devirtualize)
> @@ -655,7 +699,130 @@ ipa_profile (void)
>  		  nunknown++;
>  		}
>  	    }
> -	 }
> +	  if (e->indirect_info && e->indirect_info->num_of_ics > 1)
> +	    {
> +	      if (in_lto_p)
> +		{
> +		  if (dump_file)
> +		    {
> +		      fprintf (dump_file,
> +			       "Updating hotness threshold in LTO mode.\n");
> +		      fprintf (dump_file, "Updated min count: %" PRId64 "\n",
> +			       (int64_t) threshold);
> +		    }
> +		  set_hot_bb_threshold (threshold
> +					/ e->indirect_info->num_of_ics);
> +		}
> +	      if (!node_map_initialized)
> +		init_node_map (false);
> +	      node_map_initialized = true;
> +	      ncommon++;
> +	      unsigned speculative = 0;
> +	      for (i = 0; i < (int)e->indirect_info->num_of_ics; i++)
> +		{
> +		  n2 = find_func_by_profile_id (
> +		    e->indirect_info->common_target_ids[i]);
> +		  if (n2)
> +		    {
> +		      if (dump_file)
> +			{
> +			  fprintf (
> +			    dump_file,
> +			    "Indirect call -> direct call from"
> +			    " other module %s => %s, prob %3.2f\n",
> +			    n->dump_name (), n2->dump_name (),
> +			    e->indirect_info->common_target_probabilities[i]
> +			      / (float) REG_BR_PROB_BASE);
> +			}
> +		      if (e->indirect_info->common_target_probabilities[i]
> +			  < REG_BR_PROB_BASE / 2)
> +			{
> +			  nuseless++;
> +			  if (dump_file)
> +			    fprintf (
> +			      dump_file,
> +			      "Not speculating: probability is too low.\n");
> +			}
> +		      else if (!e->maybe_hot_p ())
> +			{
> +			  nuseless++;
> +			  if (dump_file)
> +			    fprintf (dump_file,
> +				     "Not speculating: call is cold.\n");
> +			}
> +		      else if (n2->get_availability () <= AVAIL_INTERPOSABLE
> +			       && n2->can_be_discarded_p ())
> +			{
> +			  nuseless++;
> +			  if (dump_file)
> +			    fprintf (dump_file,
> +				     "Not speculating: target is overwritable "
> +				     "and can be discarded.\n");
> +			}
> +		      else if (ipa_node_params_sum && ipa_edge_args_sum
> +			       && (!vec_safe_is_empty (
> +				 IPA_NODE_REF (n2)->descriptors))
> +			       && ipa_get_param_count (IPA_NODE_REF (n2))
> +				    != ipa_get_cs_argument_count (
> +				      IPA_EDGE_REF (e))
> +			       && (ipa_get_param_count (IPA_NODE_REF (n2))
> +				     >= ipa_get_cs_argument_count (
> +				       IPA_EDGE_REF (e))
> +				   || !stdarg_p (TREE_TYPE (n2->decl))))
> +			{
> +			  nmismatch++;
> +			  if (dump_file)
> +			    fprintf (dump_file, "Not speculating: "
> +						"parameter count mismatch\n");
> +			}
> +		      else if (e->indirect_info->polymorphic
> +			       && !opt_for_fn (n->decl, flag_devirtualize)
> +			       && !possible_polymorphic_call_target_p (e, n2))
> +			{
> +			  nimpossible++;
> +			  if (dump_file)
> +			    fprintf (dump_file,
> +				     "Not speculating: "
> +				     "function is not in the polymorphic "
> +				     "call target list\n");
> +			}
> +		      else
> +			{
> +			  /* Target may be overwritable, but profile says that
> +			     control flow goes to this particular implementation
> +			     of N2.  Speculate on the local alias to allow
> +			     inlining.
> +			     */
> +			  if (!n2->can_be_discarded_p ())
> +			    {
> +			      cgraph_node *alias;
> +			      alias = dyn_cast<cgraph_node *> (
> +				n2->noninterposable_alias ());
> +			      if (alias)
> +				n2 = alias;
> +			    }
> +			  nconverted++;
> +			  e->make_speculative (
> +			    n2, e->count.apply_probability (
> +				  e->indirect_info
> +				    ->common_target_probabilities[i]));
> +			  update = true;
> +			  speculative++;
> +			}
> +		    }
> +		  else
> +		    {
> +		      if (dump_file)
> +			fprintf (dump_file,
> +				 "Function with profile-id %i not found.\n",
> +				 e->indirect_info->common_target_ids[i]);
> +		      nunknown++;
> +		    }
> +		}
> +	      if (speculative < e->indirect_info->num_of_ics)
> +		e->indirect_info->num_of_ics = speculative;
> +	    }
> +	}
>         if (update)
>  	 ipa_update_overall_fn_summary (n);
>       }
> diff --git a/gcc/ipa-utils.c b/gcc/ipa-utils.c
> index 79b250c3943..30347691029 100644
> --- a/gcc/ipa-utils.c
> +++ b/gcc/ipa-utils.c
> @@ -587,6 +587,11 @@ ipa_merge_profiles (struct cgraph_node *dst,
>        update_max_bb_count ();
>        compute_function_frequency ();
>        pop_cfun ();
> +      /* When src is speculative, clone the referrings.  */
> +      if (src->indirect_call_target)
> +	for (e = src->callers; e; e = e->next_caller)
> +	  if (e->callee == src && e->speculative)
> +	    dst->clone_referring (src);
>        for (e = dst->callees; e; e = e->next_callee)
>  	{
>  	  if (e->speculative)
> diff --git a/gcc/ipa.c b/gcc/ipa.c
> index 2496694124c..c1fe081a72d 100644
> --- a/gcc/ipa.c
> +++ b/gcc/ipa.c
> @@ -166,7 +166,7 @@ process_references (symtab_node *snode,
>     devirtualization happens.  After inlining still keep their declarations
>     around, so we can devirtualize to a direct call.
>  
> -   Also try to make trivial devirutalization when no or only one target is
> +   Also try to make trivial devirtualization when no or only one target is
>     possible.  */
>  
>  static void
> diff --git a/gcc/lto-cgraph.c b/gcc/lto-cgraph.c
> index 4dfa2862be3..0c8f547d44e 100644
> --- a/gcc/lto-cgraph.c
> +++ b/gcc/lto-cgraph.c
> @@ -238,6 +238,7 @@ lto_output_edge (struct lto_simple_output_block *ob, struct cgraph_edge *edge,
>    unsigned int uid;
>    intptr_t ref;
>    struct bitpack_d bp;
> +  unsigned i;
>  
>    if (edge->indirect_unknown_callee)
>      streamer_write_enum (ob->main_stream, LTO_symtab_tags, LTO_symtab_last_tag,
> @@ -296,6 +297,25 @@ lto_output_edge (struct lto_simple_output_block *ob, struct cgraph_edge *edge,
>        if (edge->indirect_info->common_target_id)
>  	streamer_write_hwi_stream
>  	   (ob->main_stream, edge->indirect_info->common_target_probability);
> +
> +      gcc_assert (edge->indirect_info->num_of_ics
> +		  <= GCOV_ICALL_TOPN_NCOUNTS / 2);
> +
> +      streamer_write_hwi_stream (ob->main_stream,
> +				 edge->indirect_info->num_of_ics);
> +
> +      if (edge->indirect_info->num_of_ics)
> +	{
> +	  for (i = 0; i < edge->indirect_info->num_of_ics; i++)
> +	    {
> +	      streamer_write_hwi_stream (
> +		ob->main_stream, edge->indirect_info->common_target_ids[i]);
> +	      if (edge->indirect_info->common_target_ids[i])
> +		streamer_write_hwi_stream (
> +		  ob->main_stream,
> +		  edge->indirect_info->common_target_probabilities[i]);
> +	    }
> +	}
>      }
>  }
>  
> @@ -1438,6 +1458,7 @@ input_edge (struct lto_input_block *ib, vec<symtab_node *> nodes,
>    cgraph_inline_failed_t inline_failed;
>    struct bitpack_d bp;
>    int ecf_flags = 0;
> +  unsigned i;
>  
>    caller = dyn_cast<cgraph_node *> (nodes[streamer_read_hwi (ib)]);
>    if (caller == NULL || caller->decl == NULL_TREE)
> @@ -1488,6 +1509,23 @@ input_edge (struct lto_input_block *ib, vec<symtab_node *> nodes,
>        edge->indirect_info->common_target_id = streamer_read_hwi (ib);
>        if (edge->indirect_info->common_target_id)
>          edge->indirect_info->common_target_probability = streamer_read_hwi (ib);
> +
> +      edge->indirect_info->num_of_ics = streamer_read_hwi (ib);
> +
> +      gcc_assert (edge->indirect_info->num_of_ics
> +		  <= GCOV_ICALL_TOPN_NCOUNTS / 2);
> +
> +      if (edge->indirect_info->num_of_ics)
> +	{
> +	  for (i = 0; i < edge->indirect_info->num_of_ics; i++)
> +	    {
> +	      edge->indirect_info->common_target_ids[i]
> +		= streamer_read_hwi (ib);
> +	      if (edge->indirect_info->common_target_ids[i])
> +		edge->indirect_info->common_target_probabilities[i]
> +		  = streamer_read_hwi (ib);
> +	    }
> +	}
>      }
>  }
>  
> diff --git a/gcc/predict.c b/gcc/predict.c
> index 43ee91a5b13..b7f38891c72 100644
> --- a/gcc/predict.c
> +++ b/gcc/predict.c
> @@ -763,7 +763,6 @@ dump_prediction (FILE *file, enum br_predictor predictor, int probability,
>        && bb->count.precise_p ()
>        && reason == REASON_NONE)
>      {
> -      gcc_assert (e->count ().precise_p ());
>        fprintf (file, ";;heuristics;%s;%" PRId64 ";%" PRId64 ";%.1f;\n",
>  	       predictor_info[predictor].name,
>  	       bb->count.to_gcov_type (), e->count ().to_gcov_type (),
> diff --git a/gcc/testsuite/gcc.dg/tree-prof/crossmodule-indir-call-topn-1.c b/gcc/testsuite/gcc.dg/tree-prof/crossmodule-indir-call-topn-1.c
> new file mode 100644
> index 00000000000..e0a83c2e067
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/gcc/testsuite/gcc.dg/tree-prof/crossmodule-indir-call-topn-1.c
> @@ -0,0 +1,35 @@
> +/* { dg-require-effective-target lto } */
> +/* { dg-additional-sources "crossmodule-indir-call-topn-1a.c" } */
> +/* { dg-require-profiling "-fprofile-generate" } */
> +/* { dg-options "-O2 -flto -DDOJOB=1 -fdump-ipa-profile_estimate --param indir-call-topn-profile=1" } */
> +
> +#include <stdio.h>
> +
> +typedef int (*fptr) (int);
> +int
> +one (int a);
> +
> +int
> +two (int a);
> +
> +fptr table[] = {&one, &two};
> +
> +int
> +main()
> +{
> +  int i, x;
> +  fptr p = &one;
> +
> +  x = one (3);
> +
> +  for (i = 0; i < 350000000; i++)
> +    {
> +      x = (*p) (3);
> +      p = table[x];
> +    }
> +  printf ("done:%d\n", x);
> +}
> +
> +/* { dg-final-use-not-autofdo { scan-wpa-ipa-dump "Indirect call -> direct call.* one transformation on insn" "profile_estimate" } } */
> +/* { dg-final-use-not-autofdo { scan-wpa-ipa-dump "Indirect call -> direct call.* two transformation on insn" "profile_estimate" } } */
> +
> diff --git a/gcc/testsuite/gcc.dg/tree-prof/crossmodule-indir-call-topn-1a.c b/gcc/testsuite/gcc.dg/tree-prof/crossmodule-indir-call-topn-1a.c
> new file mode 100644
> index 00000000000..a8c6e365fb9
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/gcc/testsuite/gcc.dg/tree-prof/crossmodule-indir-call-topn-1a.c
> @@ -0,0 +1,22 @@
> +/* It seems there is no way to avoid the other source of mulitple
> +   source testcase from being compiled independently.  Just avoid
> +   error.  */
> +#ifdef DOJOB
> +int
> +one (int a)
> +{
> +  return 1;
> +}
> +
> +int
> +two (int a)
> +{
> +  return 0;
> +}
> +#else
> +int
> +main()
> +{
> +  return 0;
> +}
> +#endif
> diff --git a/gcc/testsuite/gcc.dg/tree-prof/crossmodule-indir-call-topn-2.c b/gcc/testsuite/gcc.dg/tree-prof/crossmodule-indir-call-topn-2.c
> new file mode 100644
> index 00000000000..aa3887fde83
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/gcc/testsuite/gcc.dg/tree-prof/crossmodule-indir-call-topn-2.c
> @@ -0,0 +1,42 @@
> +/* { dg-require-effective-target lto } */
> +/* { dg-additional-sources "crossmodule-indir-call-topn-1a.c" } */
> +/* { dg-require-profiling "-fprofile-generate" } */
> +/* { dg-options "-O2 -flto -DDOJOB=1 -fdump-ipa-profile_estimate --param indir-call-topn-profile=1" } */
> +
> +#include <stdio.h>
> +
> +typedef int (*fptr) (int);
> +int
> +one (int a);
> +
> +int
> +two (int a);
> +
> +fptr table[] = {&one, &two};
> +
> +int foo ()
> +{
> +  int i, x;
> +  fptr p = &one;
> +
> +  x = one (3);
> +
> +  for (i = 0; i < 350000000; i++)
> +    {
> +      x = (*p) (3);
> +      p = table[x];
> +    }
> +  return x;
> +}
> +
> +int
> +main()
> +{
> +  int x = foo ();
> +  printf ("done:%d\n", x);
> +}
> +
> +/* { dg-final-use-not-autofdo { scan-wpa-ipa-dump "Indirect call -> direct call.* one transformation on insn" "profile_estimate" } } */
> +/* { dg-final-use-not-autofdo { scan-wpa-ipa-dump "Indirect call -> direct call.* two transformation on insn" "profile_estimate" } } */
> +
> +
> diff --git a/gcc/testsuite/gcc.dg/tree-prof/indir-call-prof-topn.c b/gcc/testsuite/gcc.dg/tree-prof/indir-call-prof-topn.c
> new file mode 100644
> index 00000000000..951bc7ddd19
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/gcc/testsuite/gcc.dg/tree-prof/indir-call-prof-topn.c
> @@ -0,0 +1,38 @@
> +/* { dg-require-profiling "-fprofile-generate" } */
> +/* { dg-options "-O2 -fdump-ipa-profile --param indir-call-topn-profile=1" } */
> +
> +#include <stdio.h>
> +
> +typedef int (*fptr) (int);
> +int
> +one (int a)
> +{
> +  return 1;
> +}
> +
> +int
> +two (int a)
> +{
> +  return 0;
> +}
> +
> +fptr table[] = {&one, &two};
> +
> +int
> +main()
> +{
> +  int i, x;
> +  fptr p = &one;
> +
> +  one (3);
> +
> +  for (i = 0; i < 350000000; i++)
> +    {
> +      x = (*p) (3);
> +      p = table[x];
> +    }
> +  printf ("done:%d\n", x);
> +}
> +
> +/* { dg-final-use-not-autofdo { scan-ipa-dump "Indirect call -> direct call.* one transformation on insn" "profile" } } */
> +/* { dg-final-use-not-autofdo { scan-ipa-dump "Indirect call -> direct call.* two transformation on insn" "profile" } } */
> diff --git a/gcc/tree-inline.c b/gcc/tree-inline.c
> index 9017da878b1..f69b31b197e 100644
> --- a/gcc/tree-inline.c
> +++ b/gcc/tree-inline.c
> @@ -2028,43 +2028,66 @@ copy_bb (copy_body_data *id, basic_block bb,
>  	      switch (id->transform_call_graph_edges)
>  		{
>  		case CB_CGE_DUPLICATE:
> -		  edge = id->src_node->get_edge (orig_stmt);
> -		  if (edge)
> -		    {
> -		      struct cgraph_edge *old_edge = edge;
> -		      profile_count old_cnt = edge->count;
> -		      edge = edge->clone (id->dst_node, call_stmt,
> -					  gimple_uid (stmt),
> -					  num, den,
> -					  true);
> -
> -		      /* Speculative calls consist of two edges - direct and
> -			 indirect.  Duplicate the whole thing and distribute
> -			 frequencies accordingly.  */
> -		      if (edge->speculative)
> -			{
> -			  struct cgraph_edge *direct, *indirect;
> -			  struct ipa_ref *ref;
> -
> -			  gcc_assert (!edge->indirect_unknown_callee);
> -			  old_edge->speculative_call_info (direct, indirect, ref);
> -
> -			  profile_count indir_cnt = indirect->count;
> -			  indirect = indirect->clone (id->dst_node, call_stmt,
> -						      gimple_uid (stmt),
> -						      num, den,
> -						      true);
> -
> -			  profile_probability prob
> -			     = indir_cnt.probability_in (old_cnt + indir_cnt);
> -			  indirect->count
> -			     = copy_basic_block->count.apply_probability (prob);
> -			  edge->count = copy_basic_block->count - indirect->count;
> -			  id->dst_node->clone_reference (ref, stmt);
> -			}
> -		      else
> -			edge->count = copy_basic_block->count;
> -		    }
> +		  {
> +		    edge = id->src_node->get_edge (orig_stmt);
> +		    struct cgraph_edge *old_edge = edge;
> +		    struct cgraph_edge *direct, *indirect;
> +		    bool next_speculative;
> +		    do
> +		      {
> +			next_speculative = false;
> +			if (edge)
> +			  {
> +			    profile_count old_cnt = edge->count;
> +			    edge
> +			      = edge->clone (id->dst_node, call_stmt,
> +					     gimple_uid (stmt), num, den, true);
> +
> +			    /* Speculative calls consist of two edges - direct
> +			       and indirect.  Duplicate the whole thing and
> +			       distribute frequencies accordingly.  */
> +			    if (edge->speculative)
> +			      {
> +				struct ipa_ref *ref;
> +
> +				gcc_assert (!edge->indirect_unknown_callee);
> +				old_edge->speculative_call_info (direct,
> +								 indirect, ref);
> +
> +				profile_count indir_cnt = indirect->count;
> +				indirect
> +				  = indirect->clone (id->dst_node, call_stmt,
> +						     gimple_uid (stmt), num,
> +						     den, true);
> +
> +				profile_probability prob
> +				  = indir_cnt.probability_in (old_cnt
> +							      + indir_cnt);
> +				indirect->count
> +				  = copy_basic_block->count.apply_probability (
> +				    prob);
> +				edge->count
> +				  = copy_basic_block->count - indirect->count;
> +				id->dst_node->clone_reference (ref, stmt);
> +			      }
> +			    else
> +			      edge->count = copy_basic_block->count;
> +			  }
> +			/* If the indirect call contains more than one indirect
> +			   targets, need clone all speculative edges here.  */
> +			if (old_edge && old_edge->next_callee
> +			    && old_edge->speculative && indirect
> +			    && indirect->indirect_info
> +			    && indirect->indirect_info->num_of_ics > 1)
> +			  {
> +			    edge = old_edge->next_callee;
> +			    old_edge = old_edge->next_callee;
> +			    if (edge->speculative)
> +			      next_speculative = true;
> +			  }
> +		      }
> +		    while (next_speculative);
> +		  }
>  		  break;
>  
>  		case CB_CGE_MOVE_CLONES:
> diff --git a/gcc/tree-profile.c b/gcc/tree-profile.c
> index 1c3034aac10..4964dbdebb5 100644
> --- a/gcc/tree-profile.c
> +++ b/gcc/tree-profile.c
> @@ -74,8 +74,8 @@ static GTY(()) tree ic_tuple_callee_field;
>  /* Do initialization work for the edge profiler.  */
>  
>  /* Add code:
> -   __thread gcov*	__gcov_indirect_call_counters; // pointer to actual counter
> -   __thread void*	__gcov_indirect_call_callee; // actual callee address
> +   __thread gcov*	__gcov_indirect_call.counters; // pointer to actual counter
> +   __thread void*	__gcov_indirect_call.callee; // actual callee address
>     __thread int __gcov_function_counter; // time profiler function counter
>  */
>  static void
> @@ -395,7 +395,7 @@ gimple_gen_ic_profiler (histogram_value value, unsigned tag, unsigned base)
>        f_1 = foo;
>        __gcov_indirect_call.counters = &__gcov4.main[0];
>        PROF_9 = f_1;
> -      __gcov_indirect_call_callee = PROF_9;
> +      __gcov_indirect_call.callee = PROF_9;
>        _4 = f_1 ();
>     */
>  
> @@ -458,11 +458,11 @@ gimple_gen_ic_func_profiler (void)
>  
>    /* Insert code:
>  
> -     if (__gcov_indirect_call_callee != NULL)
> +     if (__gcov_indirect_call.callee != NULL)
>         __gcov_indirect_call_profiler_v3 (profile_id, &current_function_decl);
>  
>       The function __gcov_indirect_call_profiler_v3 is responsible for
> -     resetting __gcov_indirect_call_callee to NULL.  */
> +     resetting __gcov_indirect_call.callee to NULL.  */
>  
>    gimple_stmt_iterator gsi = gsi_start_bb (cond_bb);
>    void0 = build_int_cst (ptr_type_node, 0);
> @@ -904,7 +904,7 @@ pass_ipa_tree_profile::gate (function *)
>  {
>    /* When profile instrumentation, use or test coverage shall be performed.
>       But for AutoFDO, this there is no instrumentation, thus this pass is
> -     diabled.  */
> +     disabled.  */
>    return (!in_lto_p && !flag_auto_profile
>  	  && (flag_branch_probabilities || flag_test_coverage
>  	      || profile_arc_flag));
> diff --git a/gcc/value-prof.c b/gcc/value-prof.c
> index 5013956cf86..4869ab8ccd6 100644
> --- a/gcc/value-prof.c
> +++ b/gcc/value-prof.c
> @@ -579,8 +579,8 @@ free_histograms (struct function *fn)
>     somehow.  */
>  
>  static bool
> -check_counter (gimple *stmt, const char * name,
> -	       gcov_type *count, gcov_type *all, profile_count bb_count_d)
> +check_counter (gimple *stmt, const char *name, gcov_type *count, gcov_type *all,
> +	       profile_count bb_count_d, float ratio = 1.0f)
>  {
>    gcov_type bb_count = bb_count_d.ipa ().to_gcov_type ();
>    if (*all != bb_count || *count > *all)
> @@ -599,7 +599,7 @@ check_counter (gimple *stmt, const char * name,
>                               "count (%d)\n", name, (int)*all, (int)bb_count);
>  	  *all = bb_count;
>  	  if (*count > *all)
> -            *count = *all;
> +	    *count = *all * ratio;
>  	  return false;
>  	}
>        else
> @@ -1410,9 +1410,132 @@ gimple_ic (gcall *icall_stmt, struct cgraph_node *direct_call,
>    return dcall_stmt;
>  }
>  
> +/* If --param=indir-call-topn-profile=1 is specified when compiling, there maybe
> +   multiple indirect targets in histogram.  Check every indirect/virtual call
> +   if callee function exists, if not exit, leave it to LTO stage for later
> +   process.  Modify code of this indirect call to an if-else structure in
> +   ipa-profile finally.  */
> +static bool
> +ic_transform_topn (gimple_stmt_iterator *gsi)
> +{
> +  unsigned j;
> +  gcall *stmt;
> +  histogram_value histogram;
> +  gcov_type val, count, count_all, all, bb_all;
> +  struct cgraph_node *d_call;
> +  profile_count bb_count;
> +
> +  stmt = dyn_cast<gcall *> (gsi_stmt (*gsi));
> +  if (!stmt)
> +    return false;
> +
> +  if (gimple_call_fndecl (stmt) != NULL_TREE)
> +    return false;
> +
> +  if (gimple_call_internal_p (stmt))
> +    return false;
> +
> +  histogram
> +    = gimple_histogram_value_of_type (cfun, stmt, HIST_TYPE_INDIR_CALL_TOPN);
> +  if (!histogram)
> +    return false;
> +
> +  count = 0;
> +  all = 0;
> +  bb_all = gimple_bb (stmt)->count.ipa ().to_gcov_type ();
> +  bb_count = gimple_bb (stmt)->count;
> +
> +  /* n_counters need be odd to avoid access violation.  */
> +  gcc_assert (histogram->n_counters % 2 == 1);
> +
> +  /* For indirect call topn, accumulate all the counts first.  */
> +  for (j = 1; j < histogram->n_counters; j += 2)
> +    {
> +      val = histogram->hvalue.counters[j];
> +      count = histogram->hvalue.counters[j + 1];
> +      if (val)
> +	all += count;
> +    }
> +
> +  count_all = all;
> +  /* Do the indirect call conversion if function body exists, or else leave it
> +     to LTO stage.  */
> +  for (j = 1; j < histogram->n_counters; j += 2)
> +    {
> +      val = histogram->hvalue.counters[j];
> +      count = histogram->hvalue.counters[j + 1];
> +      if (val)
> +	{
> +	  /* The order of CHECK_COUNTER calls is important
> +	     since check_counter can correct the third parameter
> +	     and we want to make count <= all <= bb_count.  */
> +	  if (check_counter (stmt, "ic", &all, &bb_all, bb_count)
> +	      || check_counter (stmt, "ic", &count, &all,
> +				profile_count::from_gcov_type (all),
> +				(float) count / count_all))
> +	    {
> +	      gimple_remove_histogram_value (cfun, stmt, histogram);
> +	      return false;
> +	    }
> +
> +	  d_call = find_func_by_profile_id ((int) val);
> +
> +	  if (d_call == NULL)
> +	    {
> +	      if (val)
> +		{
> +		  if (dump_file)
> +		    {
> +		      fprintf (
> +			dump_file,
> +			"Indirect call -> direct call from other module");
> +		      print_generic_expr (dump_file, gimple_call_fn (stmt),
> +					  TDF_SLIM);
> +		      fprintf (dump_file,
> +			       "=> %i (will resolve only with LTO)\n",
> +			       (int) val);
> +		    }
> +		}
> +	      return false;
> +	    }
> +
> +	  if (!check_ic_target (stmt, d_call))
> +	    {
> +	      if (dump_file)
> +		{
> +		  fprintf (dump_file, "Indirect call -> direct call ");
> +		  print_generic_expr (dump_file, gimple_call_fn (stmt),
> +				      TDF_SLIM);
> +		  fprintf (dump_file, "=> ");
> +		  print_generic_expr (dump_file, d_call->decl, TDF_SLIM);
> +		  fprintf (dump_file,
> +			   " transformation skipped because of type mismatch");
> +		  print_gimple_stmt (dump_file, stmt, 0, TDF_SLIM);
> +		}
> +	      gimple_remove_histogram_value (cfun, stmt, histogram);
> +	      return false;
> +	    }
> +
> +	  if (dump_file)
> +	  {
> +	    fprintf (dump_file, "Indirect call -> direct call ");
> +	    print_generic_expr (dump_file, gimple_call_fn (stmt), TDF_SLIM);
> +	    fprintf (dump_file, "=> ");
> +	    print_generic_expr (dump_file, d_call->decl, TDF_SLIM);
> +	    fprintf (dump_file,
> +		     " transformation on insn postponed to ipa-profile");
> +	    print_gimple_stmt (dump_file, stmt, 0, TDF_SLIM);
> +	    fprintf (dump_file, "hist->count %" PRId64
> +		" hist->all %" PRId64"\n", count, all);
> +	  }
> +	}
> +    }
> +
> +  return true;
> +}
>  /*
>    For every checked indirect/virtual call determine if most common pid of
> -  function/class method has probability more than 50%. If yes modify code of
> +  function/class method has probability more than 50%.  If yes modify code of
>    this call to:
>   */
>  
> @@ -1423,6 +1546,7 @@ gimple_ic_transform (gimple_stmt_iterator *gsi)
>    histogram_value histogram;
>    gcov_type val, count, all, bb_all;
>    struct cgraph_node *direct_call;
> +  enum hist_type type;
>  
>    stmt = dyn_cast <gcall *> (gsi_stmt (*gsi));
>    if (!stmt)
> @@ -1434,18 +1558,24 @@ gimple_ic_transform (gimple_stmt_iterator *gsi)
>    if (gimple_call_internal_p (stmt))
>      return false;
>  
> -  histogram = gimple_histogram_value_of_type (cfun, stmt, HIST_TYPE_INDIR_CALL);
> +  type = PARAM_VALUE (PARAM_INDIR_CALL_TOPN_PROFILE) ? HIST_TYPE_INDIR_CALL_TOPN
> +						     : HIST_TYPE_INDIR_CALL;
> +
> +  histogram = gimple_histogram_value_of_type (cfun, stmt, type);
>    if (!histogram)
>      return false;
>  
> +  if (type == HIST_TYPE_INDIR_CALL_TOPN)
> +      return ic_transform_topn (gsi);
> +
>    val = histogram->hvalue.counters [0];
>    count = histogram->hvalue.counters [1];
>    all = histogram->hvalue.counters [2];
>  
>    bb_all = gimple_bb (stmt)->count.ipa ().to_gcov_type ();
> -  /* The order of CHECK_COUNTER calls is important -
> +  /* The order of CHECK_COUNTER calls is important
>       since check_counter can correct the third parameter
> -     and we want to make count <= all <= bb_all. */
> +     and we want to make count <= all <= bb_all.  */
>    if (check_counter (stmt, "ic", &all, &bb_all, gimple_bb (stmt)->count)
>        || check_counter (stmt, "ic", &count, &all,
>  		        profile_count::from_gcov_type (all)))
> @@ -1494,7 +1624,7 @@ gimple_ic_transform (gimple_stmt_iterator *gsi)
>        print_generic_expr (dump_file, gimple_call_fn (stmt), TDF_SLIM);
>        fprintf (dump_file, "=> ");
>        print_generic_expr (dump_file, direct_call->decl, TDF_SLIM);
> -      fprintf (dump_file, " transformation on insn postponned to ipa-profile");
> +      fprintf (dump_file, " transformation on insn postponed to ipa-profile");
>        print_gimple_stmt (dump_file, stmt, 0, TDF_SLIM);
>        fprintf (dump_file, "hist->count %" PRId64
>  	       " hist->all %" PRId64"\n", count, all);
> 



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