double to int conversion leads to crazy results

Markus Werle markus@lufmech.rwth-aachen.de
Mon Dec 20 10:37:00 GMT 1999


// Maybe I am too tired today, but look at that output:
//  > g++ --version
// 2.95.2

// > uname -a
// Linux aachen 2.2.10 #12 Mon Nov 29 00:16:46 MET 1999 i586 unknown

// > g++ ConvertNumbersToStrings.C && a.out
// static_cast<int>(0.203) = 0
// static_cast<int>(2.03) = 2
// static_cast<int>(20.3) = 20
// static_cast<int>(203) = 203
// static_cast<int>(2030) = 2030
// static_cast<int>(2.03) = 2
// static_cast<int>(20.3) = 20
// static_cast<int>(203) = 202
// static_cast<int>(2030) = 2029           !!!!!!!!!!
// static_cast<int>(20300) = 20299         !!!!!!!!!!
// static_cast<int>(20.3) = 20
// static_cast<int>(203) = 203
// static_cast<int>(2030) = 2030
// static_cast<int>(20300) = 20300
// static_cast<int>(203000) = 203000


// Here is the code:
// ----------------------------------------------------------------------
#include <iostream>

typedef double Double;

inline void Demonstrate (const Double& dd) {
  Double d = dd;
  for (int ii=0; ii < 5; ii += 1) {
    cerr << "static_cast<int>(" << d << ") = " << flush
   << static_cast<int>(d) << endl;

    d *= 10;
  }
}


int main() {
     Demonstrate(0.203);
     Demonstrate(2.03);
     Demonstrate(20.3);
}

// ----------------------------------------------------------------------

// > g++ -save-temps  ConvertNumbersToStrings.C
// > cat ConvertNumbersToStrings.ii

# 1 "ConvertNumbersToStrings.C"
# 1 "/opt/gcc-2.95.2/lib/gcc-lib/i586-pc-linux-gnu/2.95.2/include/g++/iostream"
1 3





# 1
"/opt/gcc-2.95.2/lib/gcc-lib/i586-pc-linux-gnu/2.95.2/include/g++/iostream.h" 1
3


























#pragma interface



# 1
"/opt/gcc-2.95.2/lib/gcc-lib/i586-pc-linux-gnu/2.95.2/include/g++/streambuf.h" 1
3



























#pragma interface






extern "C" {
# 1 "/usr/include/libio.h" 1 3





























# 1 "/usr/include/_G_config.h" 1 3








# 1 "/usr/include/bits/types.h" 1 3

























# 1 "/usr/include/features.h" 1 3























































































































# 137 "/usr/include/features.h" 3














































# 195 "/usr/include/features.h" 3






















































# 1 "/usr/include/sys/cdefs.h" 1 3














































# 71 "/usr/include/sys/cdefs.h" 3














# 103 "/usr/include/sys/cdefs.h" 3
































































# 249 "/usr/include/features.h" 2 3




























# 1 "/usr/include/gnu/stubs.h" 1 3





































# 277 "/usr/include/features.h" 2 3




# 26 "/usr/include/bits/types.h" 2 3



# 1 "/opt/gcc-2.95.2/lib/gcc-lib/i586-pc-linux-gnu/2.95.2/include/stddef.h" 1 3









# 19 "/opt/gcc-2.95.2/lib/gcc-lib/i586-pc-linux-gnu/2.95.2/include/stddef.h" 3















# 61 "/opt/gcc-2.95.2/lib/gcc-lib/i586-pc-linux-gnu/2.95.2/include/stddef.h" 3





































# 131 "/opt/gcc-2.95.2/lib/gcc-lib/i586-pc-linux-gnu/2.95.2/include/stddef.h" 3







































typedef unsigned int size_t;





























# 271 "/opt/gcc-2.95.2/lib/gcc-lib/i586-pc-linux-gnu/2.95.2/include/stddef.h" 3


# 283 "/opt/gcc-2.95.2/lib/gcc-lib/i586-pc-linux-gnu/2.95.2/include/stddef.h" 3






# 317 "/opt/gcc-2.95.2/lib/gcc-lib/i586-pc-linux-gnu/2.95.2/include/stddef.h" 3


























# 29 "/usr/include/bits/types.h" 2 3



typedef unsigned char __u_char;
typedef unsigned short __u_short;
typedef unsigned int __u_int;
typedef unsigned long __u_long;

__extension__ typedef unsigned long long int __u_quad_t;
__extension__ typedef long long int __quad_t;
# 48 "/usr/include/bits/types.h" 3

typedef signed char __int8_t;
typedef unsigned char __uint8_t;
typedef signed short int __int16_t;
typedef unsigned short int __uint16_t;
typedef signed int __int32_t;
typedef unsigned int __uint32_t;

__extension__ typedef signed long long int __int64_t;
__extension__ typedef unsigned long long int __uint64_t;

typedef __quad_t *__qaddr_t;

typedef __u_quad_t __dev_t;
typedef __u_int __uid_t;
typedef __u_int __gid_t;
typedef __u_long __ino_t;
typedef __u_int __mode_t;
typedef __u_int __nlink_t;
typedef long int __off_t;
typedef __quad_t __loff_t;
typedef int __pid_t;
typedef int __ssize_t;
typedef long int __rlim_t;
typedef __quad_t __rlim64_t;
typedef __u_int __id_t;

typedef struct
  {
    int __val[2];
  } __fsid_t;


typedef int __daddr_t;
typedef char *__caddr_t;
typedef long int __time_t;
typedef long int __swblk_t;

typedef long int __clock_t;


typedef unsigned long int __fd_mask;










typedef struct
  {






    __fd_mask __fds_bits[1024  / (8 * sizeof (__fd_mask)) ];


  } __fd_set;


typedef int __key_t;


typedef unsigned short int __ipc_pid_t;





typedef long int __blkcnt_t;
typedef __quad_t __blkcnt64_t;


typedef __u_long __fsblkcnt_t;
typedef __u_quad_t __fsblkcnt64_t;


typedef __u_long __fsfilcnt_t;
typedef __u_quad_t __fsfilcnt64_t;


typedef __u_long __ino64_t;


typedef __loff_t __off64_t;


typedef int __t_scalar_t;
typedef unsigned int __t_uscalar_t;


typedef int __intptr_t;








# 9 "/usr/include/_G_config.h" 2 3





# 1 "/opt/gcc-2.95.2/lib/gcc-lib/i586-pc-linux-gnu/2.95.2/include/stddef.h" 1 3









# 19 "/opt/gcc-2.95.2/lib/gcc-lib/i586-pc-linux-gnu/2.95.2/include/stddef.h" 3















# 61 "/opt/gcc-2.95.2/lib/gcc-lib/i586-pc-linux-gnu/2.95.2/include/stddef.h" 3





































# 131 "/opt/gcc-2.95.2/lib/gcc-lib/i586-pc-linux-gnu/2.95.2/include/stddef.h" 3







# 188 "/opt/gcc-2.95.2/lib/gcc-lib/i586-pc-linux-gnu/2.95.2/include/stddef.h" 3




























































































typedef unsigned int  wint_t;








# 317 "/opt/gcc-2.95.2/lib/gcc-lib/i586-pc-linux-gnu/2.95.2/include/stddef.h" 3


























# 14 "/usr/include/_G_config.h" 2 3





















typedef int _G_int16_t __attribute__ ((__mode__ (__HI__)));
typedef int _G_int32_t __attribute__ ((__mode__ (__SI__)));
typedef unsigned int _G_uint16_t __attribute__ ((__mode__ (__HI__)));
typedef unsigned int _G_uint32_t __attribute__ ((__mode__ (__SI__)));











































# 30 "/usr/include/libio.h" 2 3


















# 1 "/opt/gcc-2.95.2/lib/gcc-lib/i586-pc-linux-gnu/2.95.2/include/stdarg.h" 1 3








































































typedef void *__gnuc_va_list;





# 122 "/opt/gcc-2.95.2/lib/gcc-lib/i586-pc-linux-gnu/2.95.2/include/stdarg.h" 3




















# 209 "/opt/gcc-2.95.2/lib/gcc-lib/i586-pc-linux-gnu/2.95.2/include/stdarg.h" 3




# 48 "/usr/include/libio.h" 2 3







# 67 "/usr/include/libio.h" 3




















# 98 "/usr/include/libio.h" 3
























































struct _IO_jump_t;  struct _IO_FILE;









typedef void _IO_lock_t;





struct _IO_marker {
  struct _IO_marker *_next;
  struct _IO_FILE *_sbuf;



  int _pos;
# 186 "/usr/include/libio.h" 3

};

struct _IO_FILE {
  int _flags;




  char* _IO_read_ptr;
  char* _IO_read_end;
  char* _IO_read_base;
  char* _IO_write_base;
  char* _IO_write_ptr;
  char* _IO_write_end;
  char* _IO_buf_base;
  char* _IO_buf_end;

  char *_IO_save_base;
  char *_IO_backup_base;
  char *_IO_save_end;

  struct _IO_marker *_markers;

  struct _IO_FILE *_chain;

  int _fileno;
  int _blksize;
  __off_t   _old_offset;



  unsigned short _cur_column;
  signed char _vtable_offset;
  char _shortbuf[1];



  _IO_lock_t *_lock;








  __off64_t   _offset;

  int _unused2[16];

};





struct _IO_FILE_plus;
extern struct _IO_FILE_plus _IO_2_1_stdin_;
extern struct _IO_FILE_plus _IO_2_1_stdout_;
extern struct _IO_FILE_plus _IO_2_1_stderr_;











# 276 "/usr/include/libio.h" 3




extern "C" {


extern int __underflow  (_IO_FILE *)  throw ()  ;
extern int __uflow  (_IO_FILE *)  throw ()  ;
extern int __overflow  (_IO_FILE *, int)  throw ()  ;
















extern int _IO_getc  (_IO_FILE *__fp)  throw ()  ;
extern int _IO_putc  (int __c, _IO_FILE *__fp)  throw ()  ;
extern int _IO_feof  (_IO_FILE *__fp)  throw ()  ;
extern int _IO_ferror  (_IO_FILE *__fp)  throw ()  ;

extern int _IO_peekc_locked  (_IO_FILE *__fp)  throw ()  ;





extern void _IO_flockfile  (_IO_FILE *)  throw ()  ;
extern void _IO_funlockfile  (_IO_FILE *)  throw ()  ;
extern int _IO_ftrylockfile  (_IO_FILE *)  throw ()  ;












extern int _IO_vfscanf  (_IO_FILE * __restrict, const char * __restrict,
        __gnuc_va_list , int *__restrict)  throw ()  ;
extern int _IO_vfprintf  (_IO_FILE *__restrict, const char *__restrict,
         __gnuc_va_list )  throw ()  ;
extern __ssize_t   _IO_padn  (_IO_FILE *, int, __ssize_t  )  throw ()  ;
extern size_t   _IO_sgetn  (_IO_FILE *, void *, size_t  )  throw ()  ;

extern __off64_t   _IO_seekoff  (_IO_FILE *, __off64_t  , int, int)  throw ()  ;

extern __off64_t   _IO_seekpos  (_IO_FILE *, __off64_t  , int)  throw ()  ;

extern void _IO_free_backup_area  (_IO_FILE *)  throw ()  ;


}



# 36
"/opt/gcc-2.95.2/lib/gcc-lib/i586-pc-linux-gnu/2.95.2/include/g++/streambuf.h" 2
3

}


# 1 "/opt/gcc-2.95.2/lib/gcc-lib/i586-pc-linux-gnu/2.95.2/include/stdarg.h" 1 3


































































































void va_end (__gnuc_va_list);


























































# 175 "/opt/gcc-2.95.2/lib/gcc-lib/i586-pc-linux-gnu/2.95.2/include/stdarg.h" 3













typedef __gnuc_va_list va_list;
























# 40
"/opt/gcc-2.95.2/lib/gcc-lib/i586-pc-linux-gnu/2.95.2/include/g++/streambuf.h" 2
3

























extern "C++" {
class istream;
class ostream; class streambuf;






typedef __off64_t   streamoff;
typedef __off64_t   streampos;




typedef __ssize_t   streamsize;

typedef unsigned long __fmtflags;
typedef unsigned char __iostate;

struct _ios_fields
{
    streambuf *_strbuf;
    ostream* _tie;
    int _width;
    __fmtflags _flags;
    wchar_t   _fill;
    __iostate _state;
    __iostate _exceptions;
    int _precision;

    void *_arrays;
};















# 124
"/opt/gcc-2.95.2/lib/gcc-lib/i586-pc-linux-gnu/2.95.2/include/g++/streambuf.h" 3



class ios : public _ios_fields {
  ios& operator=(ios&);
  ios (const ios&);
  public:
    typedef __fmtflags fmtflags;
    typedef int iostate;
    typedef int openmode;
    typedef __ssize_t   streamsize;
    enum io_state {
 goodbit = 0 ,
 eofbit = 1 ,
 failbit = 2 ,
 badbit = 4  };
    enum open_mode {
 in = 1 ,
 out = 2 ,
 ate = 4 ,
 app = 8 ,
 trunc = 16 ,
 nocreate = 32 ,
 noreplace = 64 ,
 bin = 128 ,
 binary = 128  };
    enum seek_dir { beg, cur, end};
    typedef enum seek_dir seekdir;

    enum { skipws= 01 ,
    left= 02 , right= 04 , internal= 010 ,
    dec= 020 , oct= 040 , hex= 0100 ,
    showbase= 0200 , showpoint= 0400 ,
    uppercase= 01000 , showpos= 02000 ,
    scientific= 04000 , fixed= 010000 ,
    unitbuf= 020000 , stdio= 040000



    };
    enum {
 basefield=dec+oct+hex,
 floatfield = scientific+fixed,
 adjustfield = left+right+internal
    };

# 177
"/opt/gcc-2.95.2/lib/gcc-lib/i586-pc-linux-gnu/2.95.2/include/g++/streambuf.h" 3



    ostream* tie() const { return _tie; }
    ostream* tie(ostream* val) { ostream* save=_tie; _tie=val; return save; }


    wchar_t   fill() const { return _fill; }
    wchar_t   fill(wchar_t   newf)
 {wchar_t   oldf = _fill; _fill = newf; return oldf;}
    fmtflags flags() const { return _flags; }
    fmtflags flags(fmtflags new_val) {
 fmtflags old_val = _flags; _flags = new_val; return old_val; }
    int precision() const { return _precision; }
    int precision(int newp) {
 unsigned short oldp = _precision; _precision = (unsigned short)newp;
 return oldp; }
    fmtflags setf(fmtflags val) {
 fmtflags oldbits = _flags;
 _flags |= val; return oldbits; }
    fmtflags setf(fmtflags val, fmtflags mask) {
 fmtflags oldbits = _flags;
 _flags = (_flags & ~mask) | (val & mask); return oldbits; }
    fmtflags unsetf(fmtflags mask) {
 fmtflags oldbits = _flags;
 _flags &= ~mask; return oldbits; }
    int width() const { return _width; }
    int width(int val) { int save = _width; _width = val; return save; }




    void _throw_failure() const { }

    void clear(iostate state = 0) {
 _state = _strbuf ? state : state|badbit;
 if (_state & _exceptions) _throw_failure(); }
    void set(iostate flag) { _state |= flag;
 if (_state & _exceptions) _throw_failure(); }
    void setstate(iostate flag) { _state |= flag;
 if (_state & _exceptions) _throw_failure(); }
    int good() const { return _state == 0; }
    int eof() const { return _state & ios::eofbit; }
    int fail() const { return _state & (ios::badbit|ios::failbit); }
    int bad() const { return _state & ios::badbit; }
    iostate rdstate() const { return _state; }
    operator void*() const { return fail() ? (void*)0 : (void*)(-1); }
    int operator!() const { return fail(); }
    iostate exceptions() const { return _exceptions; }
    void exceptions(iostate enable) {
 _exceptions = enable;
 if (_state & _exceptions) _throw_failure(); }

    streambuf* rdbuf() const { return _strbuf; }
    streambuf* rdbuf(streambuf *_s) {
      streambuf *_old = _strbuf; _strbuf = _s; clear (); return _old; }

    static int sync_with_stdio(int on);
    static void sync_with_stdio() { sync_with_stdio(1); }
    static fmtflags bitalloc();
    static int xalloc();
    void*& pword(int);
    void* pword(int) const;
    long& iword(int);
    long iword(int) const;










    class Init {
    public:
      Init () { }
    };

  protected:
    inline ios(streambuf* sb = 0, ostream* tie_to = 0);
    inline virtual ~ios();
    inline void init(streambuf* sb, ostream* tie = 0);
};




typedef ios::seek_dir _seek_dir;










class streammarker : private _IO_marker {
    friend class streambuf;
    void set_offset(int offset) { _pos = offset; }
  public:
    streammarker(streambuf *sb);
    ~streammarker();
    int saving() { return  1; }
    int delta(streammarker&);
    int delta();
};

struct streambuf : public _IO_FILE {
    friend class ios;
    friend class istream;
    friend class ostream;
    friend class streammarker;
    const void *&_vtable() { return *(const void**)((_IO_FILE*)this + 1); }
  protected:
    static streambuf* _list_all;
    _IO_FILE*& xchain() { return _chain; }
    void _un_link();
    void _link_in();
    char* gptr() const
      { return _flags  & 0x100  ? _IO_save_base : _IO_read_ptr; }
    char* pptr() const { return _IO_write_ptr; }
    char* egptr() const
      { return _flags  & 0x100  ? _IO_save_end : _IO_read_end; }
    char* epptr() const { return _IO_write_end; }
    char* pbase() const { return _IO_write_base; }
    char* eback() const
      { return _flags  & 0x100  ? _IO_save_base : _IO_read_base;}
    char* base() const { return _IO_buf_base; }
    char* ebuf() const { return _IO_buf_end; }
    int blen() const { return _IO_buf_end - _IO_buf_base; }
    void xput_char(char c) { *_IO_write_ptr++ = c; }
    int xflags() { return _flags ; }
    int xflags(int f) {int fl = _flags ; _flags  = f; return fl;}
    void xsetflags(int f) { _flags  |= f; }
    void xsetflags(int f, int mask)
      { _flags  = (_flags  & ~mask) | (f & mask); }
    void gbump(int n)
      { _flags  & 0x100  ? (_IO_save_base+=n):(_IO_read_ptr+=n);}
    void pbump(int n) { _IO_write_ptr += n; }
    void setb(char* b, char* eb, int a=0);
    void setp(char* p, char* ep)
      { _IO_write_base=_IO_write_ptr=p; _IO_write_end=ep; }
    void setg(char* eb, char* g, char *eg) {
      if (_flags  & 0x100 ) _IO_free_backup_area(this);
      _IO_read_base = eb; _IO_read_ptr = g; _IO_read_end = eg; }
    char *shortbuf() { return _shortbuf; }

    int in_backup() { return _flags & 0x100 ; }

    char *Gbase() { return in_backup() ? _IO_save_base : _IO_read_base; }

    char *eGptr() { return in_backup() ? _IO_save_end : _IO_read_end; }

    char *Bbase() { return in_backup() ? _IO_read_base : _IO_save_base; }
    char *Bptr() { return _IO_backup_base; }

    char *eBptr() { return in_backup() ? _IO_read_end : _IO_save_end; }
    char *Nbase() { return _IO_save_base; }
    char *eNptr() { return _IO_save_end; }
    int have_backup() { return _IO_save_base != __null ; }
    int have_markers() { return _markers != __null ; }
    void free_backup_area();
    void unsave_markers();
    int put_mode() { return _flags & 0x800 ; }
    int switch_to_get_mode();

    streambuf(int flags=0);
  public:
    static int flush_all();
    static void flush_all_linebuffered();
    virtual ~streambuf();
    virtual int overflow(int c = (-1) );
    virtual int underflow();
    virtual int uflow();
    virtual int pbackfail(int c);

    virtual streamsize xsputn(const char* s, streamsize n);
    virtual streamsize xsgetn(char* s, streamsize n);
    virtual streampos seekoff(streamoff, _seek_dir, int mode=ios::in|ios::out);
    virtual streampos seekpos(streampos pos, int mode = ios::in|ios::out);

    streampos pubseekoff(streamoff o, _seek_dir d, int mode=ios::in|ios::out)
      { return _IO_seekoff (this, o, d, mode); }
    streampos pubseekpos(streampos pos, int mode = ios::in|ios::out)
      { return _IO_seekpos (this, pos, mode); }
    streampos sseekoff(streamoff, _seek_dir, int mode=ios::in|ios::out);
    streampos sseekpos(streampos pos, int mode = ios::in|ios::out);
    virtual streambuf* setbuf(char* p, int len);
    virtual int sync();
    virtual int doallocate();

    int seekmark(streammarker& mark, int delta = 0);
    int sputbackc(char c);
    int sungetc();
    int unbuffered() { return _flags & 2  ? 1 : 0; }
    int linebuffered() { return _flags & 0x200  ? 1 : 0; }
    void unbuffered(int i)
 { if (i) _flags |= 2 ; else _flags &= ~2 ; }
    void linebuffered(int i)
 { if (i) _flags |= 0x200 ; else _flags &= ~0x200 ; }
    int allocate() {
 if (base() || unbuffered()) return 0;
 else return doallocate(); }

    void allocbuf() { if (base() == __null ) doallocbuf(); }
    void doallocbuf();
    int in_avail() { return _IO_read_end - _IO_read_ptr; }
    int out_waiting() { return _IO_write_ptr - _IO_write_base; }
    streamsize sputn(const char* s, streamsize n) { return xsputn(s, n); }
    streamsize padn(char pad, streamsize n) { return _IO_padn(this, pad, n); }
    streamsize sgetn(char* s, streamsize n) { return _IO_sgetn(this, s, n); }
    int ignore(int);
    int get_column();
    int set_column(int);
    long sgetline(char* buf, size_t   n, char delim, int putback_delim);
    int sputc(int c) { return _IO_putc(c, this); }
    int sbumpc() { return _IO_getc(this); }
    int sgetc() { return ((  this  )->_IO_read_ptr >= (  this  )->_IO_read_end
&& __underflow (  this  ) == (-1)  ? (-1)  : *(unsigned char *) (  this
)->_IO_read_ptr)  ; }
    int snextc() {
 if (_IO_read_ptr >= _IO_read_end && __underflow(this) == (-1) )
   return (-1) ;
 else return _IO_read_ptr++, sgetc(); }
    void stossc() { if (_IO_read_ptr < _IO_read_end) _IO_read_ptr++; }
    int vscan(char const *fmt0, __gnuc_va_list  ap, ios* stream = __null );
    int scan(char const *fmt0 ...);
    int vform(char const *fmt0, __gnuc_va_list  ap);
    int form(char const *fmt0 ...);




    virtual streamsize sys_read(char* buf, streamsize size);
    virtual streamsize sys_write(const char*, streamsize);
    virtual streampos sys_seek(streamoff, _seek_dir);
    virtual int sys_close();
    virtual int sys_stat(void*);

    virtual int showmanyc();
    virtual void imbue(void *);

};




class filebuf : public streambuf {
  protected:
    void init();
  public:
    static const int openprot;
    filebuf();
    filebuf(int fd);
    filebuf(int fd, char* p, int len);



    ~filebuf();
    filebuf* attach(int fd);
    filebuf* open(const char *filename, const char *mode);
    filebuf* open(const char *filename, ios::openmode mode, int prot = 0664);
    virtual int underflow();
    virtual int overflow(int c = (-1) );
    int is_open() const { return _fileno >= 0; }
    int fd() const { return is_open() ? _fileno : (-1) ; }
    filebuf* close();
    virtual int doallocate();
    virtual streampos seekoff(streamoff, _seek_dir, int mode=ios::in|ios::out);
    virtual streambuf* setbuf(char* p, int len);
    streamsize xsputn(const char* s, streamsize n);
    streamsize xsgetn(char* s, streamsize n);
    virtual int sync();
  protected:

    int is_reading() { return eback() != egptr(); }
    char* cur_ptr() { return is_reading() ?  gptr() : pptr(); }

    char* file_ptr() { return eGptr(); }

    virtual streamsize sys_read(char* buf, streamsize size);
    virtual streampos sys_seek(streamoff, _seek_dir);
    virtual streamsize sys_write(const char*, streamsize);
    virtual int sys_stat(void*);
    virtual int sys_close();




};

inline void ios::init(streambuf* sb, ostream* tie_to) {
  _state = sb ? ios::goodbit : ios::badbit; _exceptions=0;
  _strbuf=sb; _tie = tie_to; _width=0; _fill=' ';

  _flags=ios::skipws|ios::dec;



  _precision=6; _arrays = 0; }

inline ios::ios(streambuf* sb, ostream* tie_to) { init(sb, tie_to); }

inline ios::~ios() {





    operator delete[] (_arrays);
}
}

# 31
"/opt/gcc-2.95.2/lib/gcc-lib/i586-pc-linux-gnu/2.95.2/include/g++/iostream.h" 2
3


extern "C++" {
class istream; class ostream;
typedef ios& (*__manip)(ios&);
typedef istream& (*__imanip)(istream&);
typedef ostream& (*__omanip)(ostream&);

extern istream& ws(istream& ins);
extern ostream& flush(ostream& outs);
extern ostream& endl(ostream& outs);
extern ostream& ends(ostream& outs);

class ostream : virtual public ios
{

    void do_osfx();
  public:
    ostream() { }
    ostream(streambuf* sb, ostream* tied= __null );
    int opfx() {
 if (!good()) return 0;
 else { if (_tie) _tie->flush();  ; return 1;} }
    void osfx() {  ;
    if (flags() & (ios::unitbuf|ios::stdio))
        do_osfx(); }
    ostream& flush();
    ostream& put(char c) { _strbuf->sputc(c); return *this; }





    ostream& write(const char *s, streamsize n);
    ostream& write(const unsigned char *s, streamsize n)
      { return write((const char*)s, n);}
    ostream& write(const signed char *s, streamsize n)
      { return write((const char*)s, n);}
    ostream& write(const void *s, streamsize n)
      { return write((const char*)s, n);}
    ostream& seekp(streampos);
    ostream& seekp(streamoff, _seek_dir);
    streampos tellp();
    ostream& form(const char *format ...);
    ostream& vform(const char *format, __gnuc_va_list  args);

    ostream& operator<<(char c);
    ostream& operator<<(unsigned char c) { return (*this) << (char)c; }
    ostream& operator<<(signed char c) { return (*this) << (char)c; }
    ostream& operator<<(const char *s);
    ostream& operator<<(const unsigned char *s)
 { return (*this) << (const char*)s; }
    ostream& operator<<(const signed char *s)
 { return (*this) << (const char*)s; }
    ostream& operator<<(const void *p);
    ostream& operator<<(int n);
    ostream& operator<<(unsigned int n);
    ostream& operator<<(long n);
    ostream& operator<<(unsigned long n);

    __extension__ ostream& operator<<(long long n);
    __extension__ ostream& operator<<(unsigned long long n);

    ostream& operator<<(short n) {return operator<<((int)n);}
    ostream& operator<<(unsigned short n) {return operator<<((unsigned int)n);}

    ostream& operator<<(bool b) { return operator<<((int)b); }

    ostream& operator<<(double n);
    ostream& operator<<(float n) { return operator<<((double)n); }

    ostream& operator<<(long double n);



    ostream& operator<<(__omanip func) { return (*func)(*this); }
    ostream& operator<<(__manip func) {(*func)(*this); return *this;}
    ostream& operator<<(streambuf*);



};

class istream : virtual public ios
{

protected:
    size_t   _gcount;

    int _skip_ws();
  public:
    istream(): _gcount (0) { }
    istream(streambuf* sb, ostream*tied= __null );
    istream& get(char* ptr, int len, char delim = '\n');
    istream& get(unsigned char* ptr, int len, char delim = '\n')
 { return get((char*)ptr, len, delim); }
    istream& get(char& c);
    istream& get(unsigned char& c) { return get((char&)c); }
    istream& getline(char* ptr, int len, char delim = '\n');
    istream& getline(unsigned char* ptr, int len, char delim = '\n')
 { return getline((char*)ptr, len, delim); }
    istream& get(signed char& c)  { return get((char&)c); }
    istream& get(signed char* ptr, int len, char delim = '\n')
 { return get((char*)ptr, len, delim); }
    istream& getline(signed char* ptr, int len, char delim = '\n')
 { return getline((char*)ptr, len, delim); }
    istream& read(char *ptr, streamsize n);
    istream& read(unsigned char *ptr, streamsize n)
      { return read((char*)ptr, n); }
    istream& read(signed char *ptr, streamsize n)
      { return read((char*)ptr, n); }
    istream& read(void *ptr, streamsize n)
      { return read((char*)ptr, n); }
    istream& get(streambuf& sb, char delim = '\n');
    istream& gets(char **s, char delim = '\n');
    int ipfx(int need = 0) {
 if (!good()) { set(ios::failbit); return 0; }
 else {
    ;
   if (_tie && (need == 0 || rdbuf()->in_avail() < need)) _tie->flush();
   if (!need && (flags() & ios::skipws)) return _skip_ws();
   else return 1;
 }
    }
    int ipfx0() {
 if (!good()) { set(ios::failbit); return 0; }
 else {
    ;
   if (_tie) _tie->flush();
   if (flags() & ios::skipws) return _skip_ws();
   else return 1;
 }
    }
    int ipfx1() {
 if (!good()) { set(ios::failbit); return 0; }
 else {
    ;
   if (_tie && rdbuf()->in_avail() == 0) _tie->flush();
   return 1;
 }
    }
    void isfx() {  ; }
    int get() { if (!ipfx1()) return (-1) ;
  else { int ch = _strbuf->sbumpc();
         if (ch == (-1) ) set(ios::eofbit);
         isfx();
         return ch;
       } }
    int peek();
    size_t   gcount() { return _gcount; }
    istream& ignore(int n=1, int delim = (-1) );
    int sync ();
    istream& seekg(streampos);
    istream& seekg(streamoff, _seek_dir);
    streampos tellg();
    istream& putback(char ch) {
 if (good() && _strbuf->sputbackc(ch) == (-1) ) clear(ios::badbit);
 return *this;}
    istream& unget() {
 if (good() && _strbuf->sungetc() == (-1) ) clear(ios::badbit);
 return *this;}
    istream& scan(const char *format ...);
    istream& vscan(const char *format, __gnuc_va_list  args);






    istream& operator>>(char*);
    istream& operator>>(unsigned char* p) { return operator>>((char*)p); }
    istream& operator>>(signed char*p) { return operator>>((char*)p); }
    istream& operator>>(char& c);
    istream& operator>>(unsigned char& c) {return operator>>((char&)c);}
    istream& operator>>(signed char& c) {return operator>>((char&)c);}
    istream& operator>>(int&);
    istream& operator>>(long&);

    __extension__ istream& operator>>(long long&);
    __extension__ istream& operator>>(unsigned long long&);

    istream& operator>>(short&);
    istream& operator>>(unsigned int&);
    istream& operator>>(unsigned long&);
    istream& operator>>(unsigned short&);

    istream& operator>>(bool&);

    istream& operator>>(float&);
    istream& operator>>(double&);
    istream& operator>>(long double&);
    istream& operator>>( __manip func) {(*func)(*this); return *this;}
    istream& operator>>(__imanip func) { return (*func)(*this); }
    istream& operator>>(streambuf*);
};

class iostream : public istream, public ostream
{
  public:
    iostream() { }
    iostream(streambuf* sb, ostream*tied= __null );
};

class _IO_istream_withassign : public istream {
public:
  _IO_istream_withassign& operator=(istream&);
  _IO_istream_withassign& operator=(_IO_istream_withassign& rhs)
    { return operator= (static_cast<istream&> (rhs)); }
};

class _IO_ostream_withassign : public ostream {
public:
  _IO_ostream_withassign& operator=(ostream&);
  _IO_ostream_withassign& operator=(_IO_ostream_withassign& rhs)
    { return operator= (static_cast<ostream&> (rhs)); }
};

extern _IO_istream_withassign cin;

extern _IO_ostream_withassign cout, cerr;

extern _IO_ostream_withassign clog



;

extern istream& lock(istream& ins);
extern istream& unlock(istream& ins);
extern ostream& lock(ostream& outs);
extern ostream& unlock(ostream& outs);

struct Iostream_init { } ;

inline ios& dec(ios& i)
{ i.setf(ios::dec, ios::dec|ios::hex|ios::oct); return i; }
inline ios& hex(ios& i)
{ i.setf(ios::hex, ios::dec|ios::hex|ios::oct); return i; }
inline ios& oct(ios& i)
{ i.setf(ios::oct, ios::dec|ios::hex|ios::oct); return i; }
}


# 6 "/opt/gcc-2.95.2/lib/gcc-lib/i586-pc-linux-gnu/2.95.2/include/g++/iostream"
2 3


# 1 "ConvertNumbersToStrings.C" 2


typedef double Double;

inline void Demonstrate (const Double& dd) {
  Double d = dd;
  for (int ii=0; ii < 5; ii += 1) {
    cerr << "static_cast<int>(" << d << ") = " << flush
   << static_cast<int>(d) << endl;

    d *= 10;
  }
}


int main() {
     Demonstrate(0.203);
     Demonstrate(2.03);
     Demonstrate(20.3);
}





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