This section describes the macros that output function entry (prologue) and exit (epilogue) code.
Generate a patchable area at the function start, consisting of
patch_area_size NOP instructions. If the target supports named
sections and if record_p is true, insert a pointer to the current
location in the table of patchable functions. The default implementation
of the hook places the table of pointers in the special section named
If defined, a function that outputs the assembler code for entry to a function. The prologue is responsible for setting up the stack frame, initializing the frame pointer register, saving registers that must be saved, and allocating size additional bytes of storage for the local variables. file is a stdio stream to which the assembler code should be output.
The label for the beginning of the function need not be output by this macro. That has already been done when the macro is run.
To determine which registers to save, the macro can refer to the array
regs_ever_live: element r is nonzero if hard register
r is used anywhere within the function. This implies the function
prologue should save register r, provided it is not one of the
call-used registers. (
TARGET_ASM_FUNCTION_EPILOGUE must likewise use
On machines that have “register windows”, the function entry code does not save on the stack the registers that are in the windows, even if they are supposed to be preserved by function calls; instead it takes appropriate steps to “push” the register stack, if any non-call-used registers are used in the function.
On machines where functions may or may not have frame-pointers, the
function entry code must vary accordingly; it must set up the frame
pointer if one is wanted, and not otherwise. To determine whether a
frame pointer is in wanted, the macro can refer to the variable
frame_pointer_needed. The variable’s value will be 1 at run
time in a function that needs a frame pointer. See Elimination.
The function entry code is responsible for allocating any stack space
required for the function. This stack space consists of the regions
listed below. In most cases, these regions are allocated in the
order listed, with the last listed region closest to the top of the
stack (the lowest address if
STACK_GROWS_DOWNWARD is defined, and
the highest address if it is not defined). You can use a different order
for a machine if doing so is more convenient or required for
compatibility reasons. Except in cases where required by standard
or by a debugger, there is no reason why the stack layout used by GCC
need agree with that used by other compilers for a machine.
If defined, a function that outputs assembler code at the end of a prologue. This should be used when the function prologue is being emitted as RTL, and you have some extra assembler that needs to be emitted. See prologue instruction pattern.
If defined, a function that outputs assembler code at the start of an epilogue. This should be used when the function epilogue is being emitted as RTL, and you have some extra assembler that needs to be emitted. See epilogue instruction pattern.
If defined, a function that outputs the assembler code for exit from a
function. The epilogue is responsible for restoring the saved
registers and stack pointer to their values when the function was
called, and returning control to the caller. This macro takes the
same argument as the macro
TARGET_ASM_FUNCTION_PROLOGUE, and the
registers to restore are determined from
CALL_USED_REGISTERS in the same way.
On some machines, there is a single instruction that does all the work
of returning from the function. On these machines, give that
instruction the name ‘return’ and do not define the macro
TARGET_ASM_FUNCTION_EPILOGUE at all.
Do not define a pattern named ‘return’ if you want the
TARGET_ASM_FUNCTION_EPILOGUE to be used. If you want the target
switches to control whether return instructions or epilogues are used,
define a ‘return’ pattern with a validity condition that tests the
target switches appropriately. If the ‘return’ pattern’s validity
condition is false, epilogues will be used.
On machines where functions may or may not have frame-pointers, the
function exit code must vary accordingly. Sometimes the code for these
two cases is completely different. To determine whether a frame pointer
is wanted, the macro can refer to the variable
frame_pointer_needed. The variable’s value will be 1 when compiling
a function that needs a frame pointer.
TARGET_ASM_FUNCTION_EPILOGUE must treat leaf functions specially.
The C variable
current_function_is_leaf is nonzero for such a
function. See Leaf Functions.
On some machines, some functions pop their arguments on exit while others leave that for the caller to do. For example, the 68020 when given -mrtd pops arguments in functions that take a fixed number of arguments.
Your definition of the macro
RETURN_POPS_ARGS decides which
functions pop their own arguments.
needs to know what was decided. The number of bytes of the current
function’s arguments that this function should pop is available in
crtl->args.pops_args. See Scalar Return.
crtl->args.pretend_args_sizebytes of uninitialized space just underneath the first argument arriving on the stack. (This may not be at the very start of the allocated stack region if the calling sequence has pushed anything else since pushing the stack arguments. But usually, on such machines, nothing else has been pushed yet, because the function prologue itself does all the pushing.) This region is used on machines where an argument may be passed partly in registers and partly in memory, and, in some cases to support the features in
ACCUMULATE_OUTGOING_ARGSis defined, a region of
crtl->outgoing_args_sizebytes to be used for outgoing argument lists of the function. See Stack Arguments.
Define this macro as a C expression that is nonzero if the return instruction or the function epilogue ignores the value of the stack pointer; in other words, if it is safe to delete an instruction to adjust the stack pointer before a return from the function. The default is 0.
Note that this macro’s value is relevant only for functions for which
frame pointers are maintained. It is never safe to delete a final
stack adjustment in a function that has no frame pointer, and the
compiler knows this regardless of
Define this macro as a C expression that is nonzero for registers that are used by the epilogue or the ‘return’ pattern. The stack and frame pointer registers are already assumed to be used as needed.
Define this macro as a C expression that is nonzero for registers that are used by the exception handling mechanism, and so should be considered live on entry to an exception edge.
A function that outputs the assembler code for a thunk function, used to implement C++ virtual function calls with multiple inheritance. The thunk acts as a wrapper around a virtual function, adjusting the implicit object parameter before handing control off to the real function.
First, emit code to add the integer delta to the location that
contains the incoming first argument. Assume that this argument
contains a pointer, and is the one used to pass the
in C++. This is the incoming argument before the function prologue,
e.g. ‘%o0’ on a sparc. The addition must preserve the values of
all other incoming arguments.
Then, if vcall_offset is nonzero, an additional adjustment should be
made after adding
delta. In particular, if p is the
adjusted pointer, the following adjustment should be made:
p += (*((ptrdiff_t **)p))[vcall_offset/sizeof(ptrdiff_t)]
After the additions, emit code to jump to function, which is a
FUNCTION_DECL. This is a direct pure jump, not a call, and does
not touch the return address. Hence returning from FUNCTION will
return to whoever called the current ‘thunk’.
The effect must be as if function had been called directly with
the adjusted first argument. This macro is responsible for emitting all
of the code for a thunk function;
TARGET_ASM_FUNCTION_EPILOGUE are not invoked.
The thunk_fndecl is redundant. (delta and function have already been extracted from it.) It might possibly be useful on some targets, but probably not.
If you do not define this macro, the target-independent code in the C++ front end will generate a less efficient heavyweight thunk that calls function instead of jumping to it. The generic approach does not support varargs.
A function that returns true if TARGET_ASM_OUTPUT_MI_THUNK would be able to output the assembler code for the thunk function specified by the arguments it is passed, and false otherwise. In the latter case, the generic approach will be used by the C++ front end, with the limitations previously exposed.