The `-gnatyx' switch causes the compiler to enforce specified style rules. A limited set of style rules has been used in writing the GNAT sources themselves. This switch allows user programs to activate all or some of these checks. If the source program fails a specified style check, an appropriate message is given, preceded by the character sequence '(style)'. This message does not prevent successful compilation (unless the `-gnatwe' switch is used).
Note that this is by no means intended to be a general facility for checking arbitrary coding standards. It is simply an embedding of the style rules we have chosen for the GNAT sources. If you are starting a project which does not have established style standards, you may find it useful to adopt the entire set of GNAT coding standards, or some subset of them.
The string x is a sequence of letters or digits indicating the particular style checks to be performed. The following checks are defined:
If a digit from 1-9 appears in the string after `-gnaty' then proper indentation is checked, with the digit indicating the indentation level required. A value of zero turns off this style check. The general style of required indentation is as specified by the examples in the Ada Reference Manual. Full line comments must be aligned with the – starting on a column that is a multiple of the alignment level, or they may be aligned the same way as the following non-blank line (this is useful when full line comments appear in the middle of a statement, or they may be aligned with the source line on the previous non-blank line.
Attribute names, including the case of keywords such as digits used as attributes names, must be written in mixed case, that is, the initial letter and any letter following an underscore must be uppercase. All other letters must be lowercase.
When using the array attributes First, Last, Range, or Length, the index number must be omitted for one-dimensional arrays and is required for multi-dimensional arrays.
Trailing blanks are not allowed at the end of statements. The purpose of this rule, together with h (no horizontal tabs), is to enforce a canonical format for the use of blanks to separate source tokens.
The use of AND/OR operators is not permitted except in the cases of modular operands, array operands, and simple stand-alone boolean variables or boolean constants. In all other cases and then/or else are required.
Comments must meet the following set of rules:
--------------------------- -- This is a box comment -- -- with two text lines. -- ---------------------------
This is identical to c except that only one space is required following the – of a comment instead of two.
All lines must be terminated by a single ASCII.LF character (in particular the DOS line terminator sequence CR/LF is not allowed).
Optional labels on end statements ending subprograms and on exit statements exiting named loops, are required to be present.
Neither form feeds nor vertical tab characters are permitted in the source text.
The set of style check switches is set to match that used by the GNAT sources. This may be useful when developing code that is eventually intended to be incorporated into GNAT. Currently this is equivalent to `-gnatwydISux') but additional style switches may be added to this set in the future without advance notice.
Horizontal tab characters are not permitted in the source text. Together with the b (no blanks at end of line) check, this enforces a canonical form for the use of blanks to separate source tokens.
The keyword then must appear either on the same line as corresponding if, or on a line on its own, lined up under the if.
Mode in (the default mode) is not allowed to be given explicitly. in out is fine, but not in on its own.
All keywords must be in lower case (with the exception of keywords such as digits used as attribute names to which this check does not apply).
Layout of statement and declaration constructs must follow the recommendations in the Ada Reference Manual, as indicated by the form of the syntax rules. For example an else keyword must be lined up with the corresponding if keyword.
There are two respects in which the style rule enforced by this check option are more liberal than those in the Ada Reference Manual. First in the case of record declarations, it is permissible to put the record keyword on the same line as the type keyword, and then the end in end record must line up under type. This is also permitted when the type declaration is split on two lines. For example, any of the following three layouts is acceptable:
type q is record a : integer; b : integer; end record; type q is record a : integer; b : integer; end record; type q is record a : integer; b : integer; end record;
Second, in the case of a block statement, a permitted alternative is to put the block label on the same line as the declare or begin keyword, and then line the end keyword up under the block label. For example both the following are permitted:
Block : declare A : Integer := 3; begin Proc (A, A); end Block; Block : declare A : Integer := 3; begin Proc (A, A); end Block;
The same alternative format is allowed for loops. For example, both of the following are permitted:
Clear : while J < 10 loop A (J) := 0; end loop Clear; Clear : while J < 10 loop A (J) := 0; end loop Clear;
The maximum level of nesting of constructs (including subprograms, loops, blocks, packages, and conditionals) may not exceed the given value `nnn'. A value of zero disconnects this style check.
The length of source lines must not exceed 79 characters, including any trailing blanks. The value of 79 allows convenient display on an 80 character wide device or window, allowing for possible special treatment of 80 character lines. Note that this count is of characters in the source text. This means that a tab character counts as one character in this count and a wide character sequence counts as a single character (however many bytes are needed in the encoding).
The length of lines must not exceed the given value `nnn'. The maximum value that can be specified is 32767. If neither style option for setting the line length is used, then the default is 255. This also controls the maximum length of lexical elements, where the only restriction is that they must fit on a single line.
Any identifier from Standard must be cased to match the presentation in the Ada Reference Manual (for example, Integer and ASCII.NUL).
All style check options are turned off.
All subprogram bodies in a given scope (e.g., a package body) must be in alphabetical order. The ordering rule uses normal Ada rules for comparing strings, ignoring casing of letters, except that if there is a trailing numeric suffix, then the value of this suffix is used in the ordering (e.g., Junk2 comes before Junk10).
This applies to all subprograms of a derived type that override a primitive operation of the type, for both tagged and untagged types. In particular, the declaration of a primitive operation of a type extension that overrides an inherited operation must carry an overriding indicator. Another case is the declaration of a function that overrides a predefined operator (such as an equality operator).
Pragma names must be written in mixed case, that is, the initial letter and any letter following an underscore must be uppercase. All other letters must be lowercase. An exception is that SPARK_Mode is allowed as an alternative for Spark_Mode.
All identifier references must be cased in the same way as the corresponding declaration. No specific casing style is imposed on identifiers. The only requirement is for consistency of references with declarations.
Separate declarations ('specs') are required for subprograms (a body is not allowed to serve as its own declaration). The only exception is that parameterless library level procedures are not required to have a separate declaration. This exception covers the most frequent form of main program procedures.
No statements are allowed on the same line as a then or else keyword following the keyword in an if statement. or else and and then are not affected, and a special exception allows a pragma to appear after else.
The following token spacing rules are enforced:
Exactly one blank (and no other white space) must appear between a not token and a following in token.
Unnecessary blank lines are not allowed. A blank line is considered unnecessary if it appears at the end of the file, or if more than one blank line occurs in sequence.
Unnecessary extra level of parentheses (C-style) are not allowed around conditions in if statements, while statements and exit statements.
This is equivalent to gnaty3aAbcefhiklmnprst, that is all checking options enabled with the exception of `-gnatyB', `-gnatyd', `-gnatyI', `-gnatyLnnn', `-gnatyo', `-gnatyO', `-gnatyS', `-gnatyu', and `-gnatyx'.
This causes any subsequent options in the string to act as canceling the corresponding style check option. To cancel maximum nesting level control, use `L' parameter witout any integer value after that, because any digit following `-' in the parameter string of the `-gnaty' option will be threated as canceling indentation check. The same is true for `M' parameter. `y' and `N' parameters are not allowed after `-'.
This causes any subsequent options in the string to enable the corresponding style check option. That is, it cancels the effect of a previous -, if any.
In the above rules, appearing in column one is always permitted, that is, counts as meeting either a requirement for a required preceding space, or as meeting a requirement for no preceding space.
Appearing at the end of a line is also always permitted, that is, counts as meeting either a requirement for a following space, or as meeting a requirement for no following space.
If any of these style rules is violated, a message is generated giving details on the violation. The initial characters of such messages are always '(style)'. Note that these messages are treated as warning messages, so they normally do not prevent the generation of an object file. The `-gnatwe' switch can be used to treat warning messages, including style messages, as fatal errors.
-gnaty on its own (that is not
followed by any letters or digits) is equivalent
to the use of `-gnatyy' as described above, that is all
built-in standard style check options are enabled.
-gnatyN clears any previously set style checks.