g77 passes arguments via reference--specifically,
by passing a pointer to the location in memory of a variable, array,
array element, a temporary location that holds the result of evaluating an
expression, or a temporary or permanent location that holds the value
of a constant.
Procedures that accept
CHARACTER arguments are implemented by
g77 so that each
CHARACTER argument has two actual arguments.
The first argument occupies the expected position in the argument list and has the user-specified name. This argument is a pointer to an array of characters, passed by the caller.
The second argument is appended to the end of the user-specified
calling sequence and is named
, where x
is the user-specified name.
This argument is of the C type
gcc/libf2c/g2c.h.in for information on that type) and
is the number of characters the caller has allocated in the
array pointed to by the first argument.
A procedure will ignore the length argument if
X is not declared
CHARACTER*(*), because for other declarations, it knows the
Not all callers necessarily "know" this, however, which
is why they all pass the extra argument.
The contents of the
CHARACTER argument are specified by the
address passed in the first argument (named after it).
The procedure can read or write these contents as appropriate.
When more than one
CHARACTER argument is present in the argument
list, the length arguments are appended in the order
the original arguments appear.
CALL FOO('HI','THERE') is implemented in
foo("hi","there",2,5);, ignoring the fact that
does not provide the trailing null bytes on the constant
f2c does provide them, but they are unnecessary in
a Fortran environment, and you should not expect them to be
Note that the above information applies to
CHARACTER variables and
It does not apply to external
functions or to intrinsic
That is, no second length argument is passed to
FOO in this case:
CHARACTER X EXTERNAL X CALL FOO(X)
FOO expect such an argument in this case:
SUBROUTINE FOO(X) CHARACTER X EXTERNAL X
Because of this implementation detail, if a program has a bug
such that there is disagreement as to whether an argument is
a procedure, and the type of the argument is
symptoms might appear.