By default, the following checks are suppressed: stack overflow
checks, and checks for access before elaboration on subprogram
calls. All other checks, including overflow checks, range checks and
array bounds checks, are turned on by default. The following
switches refine this default behavior.
This switch causes the unit to be compiled
pragma Suppress (All_checks)
had been present in the source. Validity checks are also eliminated (in
-gnatp also implies
Use this switch to improve the performance
of the code at the expense of safety in the presence of invalid data or
Note that when checks are suppressed, the compiler is allowed, but not required, to omit the checking code. If the run-time cost of the checking code is zero or near-zero, the compiler will generate it even if checks are suppressed. In particular, if the compiler can prove that a certain check will necessarily fail, it will generate code to do an unconditional ’raise’, even if checks are suppressed. The compiler warns in this case. Another case in which checks may not be eliminated is when they are embedded in certain run-time routines such as math library routines.
Of course, run-time checks are omitted whenever the compiler can prove that they will not fail, whether or not checks are suppressed.
Note that if you suppress a check that would have failed, program execution is erroneous, which means the behavior is totally unpredictable. The program might crash, or print wrong answers, or do anything else. It might even do exactly what you wanted it to do (and then it might start failing mysteriously next week or next year). The compiler will generate code based on the assumption that the condition being checked is true, which can result in erroneous execution if that assumption is wrong.
The checks subject to suppression include all the checks defined by the Ada
standard, the additional implementation defined checks
Validity_Check, as well as any checks introduced using
Atomic_Synchronization is not automatically suppressed by use of this option.
If the code depends on certain checks being active, you can use
Unsuppress either as a configuration pragma or as
a local pragma to make sure that a specified check is performed
gnatp is specified.
-gnatp switch has no effect if a subsequent
-gnat-p switch appears.
This switch cancels the effect of a previous
This switch controls the mode used for computing intermediate arithmetic integer operations, and also enables overflow checking. For a full description of overflow mode and checking control, see the ’Overflow Check Handling in GNAT’ appendix in this User’s Guide.
Overflow checks are always enabled by this switch. The argument controls the mode, using the codes
In STRICT mode, intermediate operations are always done using the base type, and overflow checking ensures that the result is within the base type range.
In MINIMIZED mode, overflows in intermediate operations are avoided
where possible by using a larger integer type for the computation
Long_Long_Integer). Overflow checking ensures that
the result fits in this larger integer type.
In ELIMINATED mode, overflows in intermediate operations are avoided by using multi-precision arithmetic. In this case, overflow checking has no effect on intermediate operations (since overflow is impossible).
If two digits are present after
-gnato then the first digit
sets the mode for expressions outside assertions, and the second digit
sets the mode for expressions within assertions. Here assertions is used
in the technical sense (which includes for example precondition and
If one digit is present, the corresponding mode is applicable to both expressions within and outside assertion expressions.
If no digits are present, the default is to enable overflow checks
and set STRICT mode for both kinds of expressions. This is compatible
with the use of
-gnato in previous versions of GNAT.
Note that the
-gnato?? switch does not affect the code generated
for any floating-point operations; it applies only to integer semantics.
For floating-point, GNAT has the
attribute set to
False and the normal mode of operation is to
generate IEEE NaN and infinite values on overflow or invalid operations
(such as dividing 0.0 by 0.0).
The reason that we distinguish overflow checking from other kinds of range constraint checking is that a failure of an overflow check, unlike for example the failure of a range check, can result in an incorrect value, but cannot cause random memory destruction (like an out of range subscript), or a wild jump (from an out of range case value). Overflow checking is also quite expensive in time and space, since in general it requires the use of double length arithmetic.
Note again that the default is
-gnato11 (equivalent to
so overflow checking is performed in STRICT mode by default.
Enables dynamic checks for access-before-elaboration
on subprogram calls and generic instantiations.
-gnatE is not necessary for safety, because in the
default mode, GNAT ensures statically that the checks would not fail.
For full details of the effect and use of this switch,
Compiling with gcc.
Activates stack overflow checking. For full details of the effect and use of this switch see Stack Overflow Checking.
The setting of these switches only controls the default setting of the
checks. You may modify them using either
Suppress (to remove
Unsuppress (to add back suppressed checks) pragmas in
the program source.