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Re: New power of 2 hash policy


On 11/09/2015 15:23, Jonathan Wakely wrote:
> On 11/09/15 14:18 +0100, Jonathan Wakely wrote:
>> On 11/09/15 15:11 +0200, Michael Matz wrote:
>>> Hi,
>>>
>>> On Thu, 10 Sep 2015, François Dumont wrote:
>>>
>>>>    Here is a patch to offer an alternative hash policy. This one is
>>>> using power of 2 number of buckets allowing a faster modulo operation.
>>>> This is obvious when running the performance test that I have
>>>> adapted to
>>>> use this alternative policy. Something between current implementation
>>>> and the tr1 one, the old std one.
>>>>
>>>>    Of course with this hash policy the lower bits of the hash code are
>>>> more important. For pointers it would require to change the std::hash
>>>> implementation to remove the lower 0 bits like in the patch I proposed
>>>> some weeks ago.
>>>>
>>>>    What do you think ?
>>>
>>> No comment on if it should be included (except that it seems useful to
>>> me), but one observation of the patch:
>>>
>>>> +    1ul << 31,
>>>> +#if __SIZEOF_LONG__ != 8
>>>> +    1ul << 32
>>>> +#else
>>>
>>> This is wrong, 1ul<<32 is zero on a 32bit machine, and is also the 33rd
>>> entry in that table, when you want only 32.  Like you also (correctly)
>>> stop with 1ul<<63 for a 64bit machine.
>>
>> I'd prefer to see that table disappear completely, replaced by a
>> constexpr function. We need a static table of prime numbers because
>> they can't be computed instantly, but we don't need to store powers of
>> two in the library.
>>
>> I agree the extension is useful, and would like to see it included,
>> but I wonder if we can do it without adding any new symbols to the
>> shared library. We certainly don't need the table, and the few other
>> functions added to the DSO could probably be defined inline in
>> headers.
>
>
> Also there several comments that talk about finding "the next prime"
> which should talk about powers of two, and the smaller table for fast
> lookup of the next "prime" may not be needed for powers of two. There
> are fast tricks for finding the next power of two using bitwise
> operations.
>
> So I'm in favour of the change in general, but it needs a little bit
> of reworking where the prime number code has been copy&pasted.
>
Hi

    Here is the new patch then.

    Working on it I realised that despite the comment on _M_next_bkt
saying "no smaller than n" the method can return a value smaller for big
n values. This is not likely to happen but I prefer to take care of it.
I just make sure we won't try to rehash again even if the drawback is
that we won't respect max_load_factor anymore at those levels. But as I
said we will surely have a memory issue before that.

    Ok to commit ?

François



diff --git a/libstdc++-v3/include/bits/hashtable_policy.h b/libstdc++-v3/include/bits/hashtable_policy.h
index a9ad7dd..4e1bc29 100644
--- a/libstdc++-v3/include/bits/hashtable_policy.h
+++ b/libstdc++-v3/include/bits/hashtable_policy.h
@@ -457,6 +457,8 @@ _GLIBCXX_BEGIN_NAMESPACE_VERSION
   /// smallest prime that keeps the load factor small enough.
   struct _Prime_rehash_policy
   {
+    using __has_load_factor = std::true_type;
+
     _Prime_rehash_policy(float __z = 1.0) noexcept
     : _M_max_load_factor(__z), _M_next_resize(0) { }
 
@@ -501,6 +503,129 @@ _GLIBCXX_BEGIN_NAMESPACE_VERSION
     mutable std::size_t	_M_next_resize;
   };
 
+  /// Range hashing function considering that second args is a power of 2.
+  struct _Mask_range_hashing
+  {
+    typedef std::size_t first_argument_type;
+    typedef std::size_t second_argument_type;
+    typedef std::size_t result_type;
+
+    result_type
+    operator()(first_argument_type __num,
+	       second_argument_type __den) const noexcept
+    { return __num & (__den - 1); }
+  };
+
+
+  /// Helper type to compute next power of 2.
+  template<std::size_t _N>
+    struct _NextPower2
+    {
+      static std::size_t
+      _Get(std::size_t __n)
+      {
+	std::size_t __next = _NextPower2<(_N >> 1)>::_Get(__n);
+	return __next |= __next >> _N;
+      }
+    };
+
+  template<>
+    struct _NextPower2<1>
+    {
+      static std::size_t
+      _Get(std::size_t __n)
+      { return __n |= __n >> 1; }
+    };
+
+  /// Rehash policy providing power of 2 bucket numbers. Ease modulo
+  /// operations.
+  struct _Power2_rehash_policy
+  {
+    using __has_load_factor = std::true_type;
+
+    _Power2_rehash_policy(float __z = 1.0) noexcept
+    : _M_max_load_factor(__z), _M_next_resize(0) { }
+
+    float
+    max_load_factor() const noexcept
+    { return _M_max_load_factor; }
+
+    // Return a bucket size no smaller than n (as long as n is not above the
+    // highest power of 2).
+    std::size_t
+    _M_next_bkt(std::size_t __n) const
+    {
+      constexpr auto __max_bkt
+	= (std::size_t(1) << (sizeof(std::size_t) * 8 - 1));
+
+      std::size_t __res
+	= _NextPower2<((sizeof(std::size_t) * 8) >> 1)>::_Get(--__n) + 1;
+
+      if (__res == 0)
+	__res = __max_bkt;
+
+      if (__res == __max_bkt)
+	// Set next resize to the max value so that we never try to rehash again
+	// as we already reach the biggest possible bucket number.
+	// Note that it might result in max_load_factor not being respected.
+	_M_next_resize = std::size_t(0) - 1;
+      else
+	_M_next_resize
+	  = __builtin_floor(__res * (long double)_M_max_load_factor);
+
+      return __res;
+    }
+
+    // Return a bucket count appropriate for n elements
+    std::size_t
+    _M_bkt_for_elements(std::size_t __n) const
+    { return __builtin_ceil(__n / (long double)_M_max_load_factor); }
+
+    // __n_bkt is current bucket count, __n_elt is current element count,
+    // and __n_ins is number of elements to be inserted.  Do we need to
+    // increase bucket count?  If so, return make_pair(true, n), where n
+    // is the new bucket count.  If not, return make_pair(false, 0).
+    std::pair<bool, std::size_t>
+    _M_need_rehash(std::size_t __n_bkt, std::size_t __n_elt,
+		   std::size_t __n_ins) const
+    {
+      if (__n_elt + __n_ins >= _M_next_resize)
+	{
+	  long double __min_bkts = (__n_elt + __n_ins)
+					/ (long double)_M_max_load_factor;
+	  if (__min_bkts >= __n_bkt)
+	    return std::make_pair(true,
+	      _M_next_bkt(std::max<std::size_t>(__builtin_floor(__min_bkts) + 1,
+						__n_bkt * _S_growth_factor)));
+
+	  _M_next_resize
+	    = __builtin_floor(__n_bkt * (long double)_M_max_load_factor);
+	  return std::make_pair(false, 0);
+	}
+      else
+	return std::make_pair(false, 0);
+    }
+
+    typedef std::size_t _State;
+
+    _State
+    _M_state() const
+    { return _M_next_resize; }
+
+    void
+    _M_reset() noexcept
+    { _M_next_resize = 0; }
+
+    void
+    _M_reset(_State __state)
+    { _M_next_resize = __state; }
+
+    static const std::size_t _S_growth_factor = 2;
+
+    float		_M_max_load_factor;
+    mutable std::size_t	_M_next_resize;
+  };
+
   // Base classes for std::_Hashtable.  We define these base classes
   // because in some cases we want to do different things depending on
   // the value of a policy class.  In some cases the policy class
@@ -775,8 +900,7 @@ _GLIBCXX_BEGIN_NAMESPACE_VERSION
 	   typename _ExtractKey, typename _Equal,
 	   typename _H1, typename _H2, typename _Hash,
 	   typename _RehashPolicy, typename _Traits,
-	   bool _Constant_iterators = _Traits::__constant_iterators::value,
-	   bool _Unique_keys = _Traits::__unique_keys::value>
+	   bool _Constant_iterators = _Traits::__constant_iterators::value>
     struct _Insert;
 
   /// Specialization.
@@ -785,65 +909,30 @@ _GLIBCXX_BEGIN_NAMESPACE_VERSION
 	   typename _H1, typename _H2, typename _Hash,
 	   typename _RehashPolicy, typename _Traits>
     struct _Insert<_Key, _Value, _Alloc, _ExtractKey, _Equal, _H1, _H2, _Hash,
-		   _RehashPolicy, _Traits, true, true>
+		   _RehashPolicy, _Traits, true>
     : public _Insert_base<_Key, _Value, _Alloc, _ExtractKey, _Equal,
 			   _H1, _H2, _Hash, _RehashPolicy, _Traits>
     {
       using __base_type = _Insert_base<_Key, _Value, _Alloc, _ExtractKey,
 					_Equal, _H1, _H2, _Hash,
 					_RehashPolicy, _Traits>;
-      using value_type = typename __base_type::value_type;
-      using iterator = typename __base_type::iterator;
-      using const_iterator =  typename __base_type::const_iterator;
 
-      using __unique_keys = typename __base_type::__unique_keys;
-      using __hashtable = typename __base_type::__hashtable;
-      using __node_gen_type = typename __base_type::__node_gen_type;
-
-      using __base_type::insert;
-
-      std::pair<iterator, bool>
-      insert(value_type&& __v)
-      {
-	__hashtable& __h = this->_M_conjure_hashtable();
-	__node_gen_type __node_gen(__h);
-	return __h._M_insert(std::move(__v), __node_gen, __unique_keys());
-      }
-
-      iterator
-      insert(const_iterator __hint, value_type&& __v)
-      {
-	__hashtable& __h = this->_M_conjure_hashtable();
-	__node_gen_type __node_gen(__h);
-	return __h._M_insert(__hint, std::move(__v), __node_gen,
-			     __unique_keys());
-      }
-    };
+      using __hashtable_base = _Hashtable_base<_Key, _Value, _ExtractKey,
+					       _Equal, _H1, _H2, _Hash,
+					       _Traits>;
 
-  /// Specialization.
-  template<typename _Key, typename _Value, typename _Alloc,
-	   typename _ExtractKey, typename _Equal,
-	   typename _H1, typename _H2, typename _Hash,
-	   typename _RehashPolicy, typename _Traits>
-    struct _Insert<_Key, _Value, _Alloc, _ExtractKey, _Equal, _H1, _H2, _Hash,
-		   _RehashPolicy, _Traits, true, false>
-    : public _Insert_base<_Key, _Value, _Alloc, _ExtractKey, _Equal,
-			   _H1, _H2, _Hash, _RehashPolicy, _Traits>
-    {
-      using __base_type = _Insert_base<_Key, _Value, _Alloc, _ExtractKey,
-					_Equal, _H1, _H2, _Hash,
-					_RehashPolicy, _Traits>;
       using value_type = typename __base_type::value_type;
       using iterator = typename __base_type::iterator;
       using const_iterator =  typename __base_type::const_iterator;
 
       using __unique_keys = typename __base_type::__unique_keys;
+      using __ireturn_type = typename __hashtable_base::__ireturn_type;
       using __hashtable = typename __base_type::__hashtable;
       using __node_gen_type = typename __base_type::__node_gen_type;
 
       using __base_type::insert;
 
-      iterator
+      __ireturn_type
       insert(value_type&& __v)
       {
 	__hashtable& __h = this->_M_conjure_hashtable();
@@ -865,9 +954,9 @@ _GLIBCXX_BEGIN_NAMESPACE_VERSION
   template<typename _Key, typename _Value, typename _Alloc,
 	   typename _ExtractKey, typename _Equal,
 	   typename _H1, typename _H2, typename _Hash,
-	   typename _RehashPolicy, typename _Traits, bool _Unique_keys>
+	   typename _RehashPolicy, typename _Traits>
     struct _Insert<_Key, _Value, _Alloc, _ExtractKey, _Equal, _H1, _H2, _Hash,
-		   _RehashPolicy, _Traits, false, _Unique_keys>
+		   _RehashPolicy, _Traits, false>
     : public _Insert_base<_Key, _Value, _Alloc, _ExtractKey, _Equal,
 			   _H1, _H2, _Hash, _RehashPolicy, _Traits>
     {
@@ -911,28 +1000,46 @@ _GLIBCXX_BEGIN_NAMESPACE_VERSION
 	}
    };
 
+  template<typename _Policy>
+    using __has_load_factor = typename _Policy::__has_load_factor;
+
   /**
    *  Primary class template  _Rehash_base.
    *
    *  Give hashtable the max_load_factor functions and reserve iff the
-   *  rehash policy is _Prime_rehash_policy.
+   *  rehash policy supports it.
   */
   template<typename _Key, typename _Value, typename _Alloc,
 	   typename _ExtractKey, typename _Equal,
 	   typename _H1, typename _H2, typename _Hash,
-	   typename _RehashPolicy, typename _Traits>
+	   typename _RehashPolicy, typename _Traits,
+	   typename =
+	     __detected_or_t<std::false_type, __has_load_factor, _RehashPolicy>>
     struct _Rehash_base;
 
-  /// Specialization.
+  /// Specialization when rehash policy doesn't provide load factor management.
   template<typename _Key, typename _Value, typename _Alloc,
 	   typename _ExtractKey, typename _Equal,
-	   typename _H1, typename _H2, typename _Hash, typename _Traits>
+	   typename _H1, typename _H2, typename _Hash,
+	   typename _RehashPolicy, typename _Traits>
+    struct _Rehash_base<_Key, _Value, _Alloc, _ExtractKey, _Equal,
+		      _H1, _H2, _Hash, _RehashPolicy, _Traits,
+		      std::false_type>
+    {
+    };
+
+  /// Specialization when rehash policy provide load factor management.
+  template<typename _Key, typename _Value, typename _Alloc,
+	   typename _ExtractKey, typename _Equal,
+	   typename _H1, typename _H2, typename _Hash,
+	   typename _RehashPolicy, typename _Traits>
     struct _Rehash_base<_Key, _Value, _Alloc, _ExtractKey, _Equal,
-			_H1, _H2, _Hash, _Prime_rehash_policy, _Traits>
+			_H1, _H2, _Hash, _RehashPolicy, _Traits,
+			std::true_type>
     {
       using __hashtable = _Hashtable<_Key, _Value, _Alloc, _ExtractKey,
 				     _Equal, _H1, _H2, _Hash,
-				     _Prime_rehash_policy, _Traits>;
+				     _RehashPolicy, _Traits>;
 
       float
       max_load_factor() const noexcept
@@ -945,7 +1052,7 @@ _GLIBCXX_BEGIN_NAMESPACE_VERSION
       max_load_factor(float __z)
       {
 	__hashtable* __this = static_cast<__hashtable*>(this);
-	__this->__rehash_policy(_Prime_rehash_policy(__z));
+	__this->__rehash_policy(_RehashPolicy(__z));
       }
 
       void
diff --git a/libstdc++-v3/src/c++11/hashtable_c++0x.cc b/libstdc++-v3/src/c++11/hashtable_c++0x.cc
index 69f999f..dd2afe3 100644
--- a/libstdc++-v3/src/c++11/hashtable_c++0x.cc
+++ b/libstdc++-v3/src/c++11/hashtable_c++0x.cc
@@ -60,8 +60,16 @@ namespace __detail
       = sizeof(__prime_list) / sizeof(unsigned long) - 1;
     const unsigned long* __next_bkt =
       std::lower_bound(__prime_list + 5, __prime_list + __n_primes, __n);
-    _M_next_resize =
-      __builtin_ceil(*__next_bkt * (long double)_M_max_load_factor);
+
+    if (__next_bkt == __prime_list + __n_primes)
+      // Set next resize to the max value so that we never try to rehash again
+      // as we already reach the biggest possible bucket number.
+      // Note that it might result in max_load_factor not being respected.
+      _M_next_resize = std::size_t(0) - 1;
+    else
+      _M_next_resize =
+	__builtin_ceil(*__next_bkt * (long double)_M_max_load_factor);
+
     return *__next_bkt;
   }
 
diff --git a/libstdc++-v3/testsuite/23_containers/unordered_set/hash_policy/power2_rehash.cc b/libstdc++-v3/testsuite/23_containers/unordered_set/hash_policy/power2_rehash.cc
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..502794b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/libstdc++-v3/testsuite/23_containers/unordered_set/hash_policy/power2_rehash.cc
@@ -0,0 +1,42 @@
+// Copyright (C) 2015 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
+//
+// This file is part of the GNU ISO C++ Library.  This library is free
+// software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the
+// terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the
+// Free Software Foundation; either version 3, or (at your option)
+// any later version.
+//
+// This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+// but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+// MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+// GNU General Public License for more details.
+//
+// You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
+// with this library; see the file COPYING3.  If not see
+// <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+//
+// { dg-options "-std=gnu++11" }
+
+#include <unordered_set>
+
+#include <testsuite_hooks.h>
+
+void test01()
+{
+  bool test __attribute__((unused)) = true;
+
+  std::__detail::_Power2_rehash_policy policy;
+  VERIFY( policy._M_next_bkt(1) == 1 );
+  VERIFY( policy._M_next_bkt(2) == 2 );
+  VERIFY( policy._M_next_bkt(3) == 4 );
+  VERIFY( policy._M_next_bkt(5) == 8 );
+  VERIFY( policy._M_next_bkt(33) == 64 );
+  VERIFY( policy._M_next_bkt((std::size_t(1) << (sizeof(std::size_t) * 8 - 2)) + 1)
+	  == (std::size_t(1) << (sizeof(std::size_t) * 8 - 1)) );
+}
+
+int main()
+{
+  test01();
+  return 0;
+}
diff --git a/libstdc++-v3/testsuite/performance/23_containers/insert/54075.cc b/libstdc++-v3/testsuite/performance/23_containers/insert/54075.cc
index ef956a0..a07d552 100644
--- a/libstdc++-v3/testsuite/performance/23_containers/insert/54075.cc
+++ b/libstdc++-v3/testsuite/performance/23_containers/insert/54075.cc
@@ -127,7 +127,27 @@ template<bool cache>
   using __umset = std::__umset_hashtable<Foo, HashFunction,
 					 std::equal_to<Foo>,
 					 std::allocator<Foo>,
-					 std::__uset_traits<cache>>;
+					 std::__umset_traits<cache>>;
+
+template<bool cache>
+  using __uset2 =
+	      std::_Hashtable<Foo, Foo, std::allocator<Foo>,
+			      std::__detail::_Identity,
+			      std::equal_to<Foo>, HashFunction,
+			      std::__detail::_Mask_range_hashing,
+			      std::__detail::_Default_ranged_hash,
+			      std::__detail::_Power2_rehash_policy,
+			      std::__uset_traits<cache>>;
+
+template<bool cache>
+  using __umset2 =
+	      std::_Hashtable<Foo, Foo, std::allocator<Foo>,
+			      std::__detail::_Identity,
+			      std::equal_to<Foo>, HashFunction,
+			      std::__detail::_Mask_range_hashing,
+			      std::__detail::_Default_ranged_hash,
+			      std::__detail::_Power2_rehash_policy,
+			      std::__umset_traits<cache>>;
 
 int main()
 {
@@ -181,6 +201,19 @@ int main()
   stop_counters(time, resource);
   report_performance(__FILE__, "std benches", time, resource);
 
+  start_counters(time, resource);
+  bench<__uset2<false>>(
+	"std::unordered_set2 without hash code cached ", foos);
+  bench<__uset2<true>>(
+	"std::unordered_set2 with hash code cached ", foos);
+  bench<__umset2<false>>(
+	"std::unordered_multiset2 without hash code cached ", foos);
+  bench<__umset2<true>>(
+	"std::unordered_multiset2 with hash code cached ", foos);
+
+  stop_counters(time, resource);
+  report_performance(__FILE__, "std2 benches", time, resource);
+
   bench<std::unordered_set<Foo, HashFunction>>(
 	"std::unordered_set default cache ", foos);
   bench<std::unordered_multiset<Foo, HashFunction>>(
diff --git a/libstdc++-v3/testsuite/performance/23_containers/insert_erase/41975.cc b/libstdc++-v3/testsuite/performance/23_containers/insert_erase/41975.cc
index 9846104..4b29fde 100644
--- a/libstdc++-v3/testsuite/performance/23_containers/insert_erase/41975.cc
+++ b/libstdc++-v3/testsuite/performance/23_containers/insert_erase/41975.cc
@@ -177,6 +177,16 @@ template<bool cache>
 					cache>;
 
 template<bool cache>
+  using __uset2 =
+	      std::_Hashtable<int, int, std::allocator<int>,
+			      std::__detail::_Identity,
+			      std::equal_to<int>, std::hash<int>,
+			      std::__detail::_Mask_range_hashing,
+			      std::__detail::_Default_ranged_hash,
+			      std::__detail::_Power2_rehash_policy,
+			      std::__uset_traits<cache>>;
+
+template<bool cache>
   using __str_uset = 
 	      std::__uset_hashtable<std::string, std::hash<std::string>,
 				    std::equal_to<std::string>,
@@ -190,6 +200,16 @@ template<bool cache>
 					std::allocator<std::string>,
 					cache>;
 
+template<bool cache>
+  using __str_uset2 =
+	      std::_Hashtable<std::string, std::string, std::allocator<std::string>,
+			      std::__detail::_Identity,
+			      std::equal_to<std::string>, std::hash<std::string>,
+			      std::__detail::_Mask_range_hashing,
+			      std::__detail::_Default_ranged_hash,
+			      std::__detail::_Power2_rehash_policy,
+			      std::__uset_traits<cache>>;
+
 int main()
 {
   bench<__tr1_uset<false>>(
@@ -202,6 +222,10 @@ int main()
 	"std::unordered_set<int> with hash code cached");
   bench<std::unordered_set<int>>(
 	"std::unordered_set<int> default cache");
+  bench<__uset2<false>>(
+	"std::unordered_set2<int> without hash code cached");
+  bench<__uset2<true>>(
+	"std::unordered_set2<int> with hash code cached");
   bench_str<__tr1_str_uset<false>>(
 	"std::tr1::unordered_set<string> without hash code cached");
   bench_str<__tr1_str_uset<true>>(
@@ -210,7 +234,11 @@ int main()
 	"std::unordered_set<string> without hash code cached");
   bench_str<__str_uset<true>>(
 	"std::unordered_set<string> with hash code cached");
-    bench_str<std::unordered_set<std::string>>(
+  bench_str<std::unordered_set<std::string>>(
 	"std::unordered_set<string> default cache");
+  bench_str<__str_uset2<false>>(
+	"std::unordered_set2<string> without hash code cached");
+  bench_str<__str_uset2<true>>(
+	"std::unordered_set2<string> with hash code cached");
   return 0;
 }

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