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Re: [PATCH] issue consistent warning for past-the-end array stores (PR 91457)

On Tue, Aug 20, 2019 at 4:32 AM Martin Sebor <> wrote:
> On 8/19/19 8:10 AM, Richard Biener wrote:
> > On Sat, Aug 17, 2019 at 12:43 AM Martin Sebor <> wrote:
> >>
> >> With the recent enhancement to the strlen handling of multibyte
> >> stores the g++.dg/warn/Warray-bounds-4.C for zero-length arrays
> >> started failing on hppa (and probably elsewhere as well).  This
> >> is partly the result of the added detection of past-the-end
> >> writes into the strlen pass which detects more instances of
> >> the problem than -Warray-bounds.  Since the IL each warning
> >> works with varies between targets, the same invalid code can
> >> be diagnosed by one warning one target and different warning
> >> on another.
> >>
> >> The attached patch does three things:
> >>
> >> 1) It enhances compute_objsize to also determine the size of
> >> a flexible array member (and its various variants), including
> >> from its initializer if necessary.  (This resolves 91457 but
> >> introduces another warning where was previously just one.)
> >> 2) It guards the new instance of -Wstringop-overflow with
> >> the no-warning bit on the assignment to avoid warning on code
> >> that's already been diagnosed.
> >> 3) It arranges for -Warray-bounds to set the no-warning bit on
> >> the enclosing expression to keep -Wstringop-overflow from issuing
> >> another warning for the same problem.
> >>
> >> Testing the compute_objsize enhancement to bring it up to par
> >> with -Warray-bounds in turn exposed a weakness in the latter
> >> warning for flexible array members.  Rather than snowballing
> >> additional improvements into this one I decided to put that
> >> off until later, so the new -Warray-bounds test has a bunch
> >> of XFAILs.  I'll see if I can find the time to deal with those
> >> either still in stage 1 or in stage 3 (one of them is actually
> >> an ancient regression).
> >
> > +static tree
> > +get_initializer_for (tree init, tree decl)
> > +{
> >
> > can't you use fold_ctor_reference here?
> Yes, but only with an additional enhancement.  Char initializers
> for flexible array members aren't transformed to STRING_CSTs yet,
> so without the size of the initializer specified, the function
> returns the initializer for the smallest subobject, or char in
> this case.  I've enhanced the function to handle them.

So at the moment it returns an empty array constructor, correct?
Isn't that the more canonical representation?  The STRING_CST
index type doesn't really handle "empty" strings and I expect code
more confused about that than about an empty CTOR?

> >
> > +/* Determine the size of the flexible array FLD from the initializer
> > +   expression for the struct object DECL in which the meber is declared
> > +   (possibly recursively).  Return the size or zero constant if it isn't
> > +   initialized.  */
> > +
> > +static tree
> > +get_flexarray_size (tree decl, tree fld)
> > +{
> > +  if (tree init = DECL_INITIAL (decl))
> > +    {
> > +      init = get_initializer_for (init, fld);
> > +      if (init)
> > +       return TYPE_SIZE_UNIT (TREE_TYPE (init));
> > +    }
> > +
> > +  return integer_zero_node;
> >
> > so you're hoping that the (sub-)CONSTRUCTOR get_initializer_for
> > returns has a complete type but the initialized object didn't get it
> > completed.  Isnt that wishful thinking?
> I don't know what you mean.  When might a CONSTRUCTOR not have
> a complete type, and if/when it doesn't, why would that be
> a problem here?  TYPE_SIZE_UNIT will evaluate to null meaning
> "don't know" and that's fine.  Could you try to be more specific
> about the problem you're pointing out?
> > And why return integer_zero_node
> > rather than NULL_TREE here?
> Because the size of a flexible array member with no initializer
> is zero.
> >
> > +  if (TREE_CODE (dest) == COMPONENT_REF)
> > +    {
> > +      *pdecl = TREE_OPERAND (dest, 1);
> > +
> > +      /* If the member has a size return it.  Otherwise it's a flexible
> > +        array member.  */
> > +      if (tree size = DECL_SIZE_UNIT (*pdecl))
> > +       return size;
> >
> > because here you do.
> Not sure what you mean here either.  (This code was also a bit

You return NULL_TREE.

> out of date WRT to the patch I had tested.  Not sure how that
> happened.  The attached patch is up to date.)
> >
> > Also once you have an underlying VAR_DECL you can compute
> > the flexarray size by DECL_SIZE (var) - offset-of flexarray member.
> > Isn't that way cheaper than walking the initializer (possibly many
> > times?)
> It would be nice if it were this easy.  Is the value of DECL_SIZE
> (var) supposed to include the size of the flexible array member?

Yes, DECL_SIZE of the VAR_DECL is the size we use for assembling.
It is usually only the types that remain incomplete (or too small) since
the FE doesn't create many variants of a struct S { int n; char x[]; }
when "instantiating" it via struct S s = { 5, "abcde" };  that then holds
true for the DECL_SIZE of the FIELD_DECL of x as well.

> I don't see it mentioned in the comments in tree.h and in my tests
> it only does in C but not in C++.  Is that a bug that in C++ it
> doesn't?

tree.h dcoumentation isn't complete.  And for me the C++ FE for
the above simple example has

 <var_decl 0x7ffff7fedb40 s
    type <record_type 0x7ffff6d94f18 S cxx-odr-p type_5 type_6 BLK
        size <integer_cst 0x7ffff6c5e0a8 constant 32>
        unit-size <integer_cst 0x7ffff6c5e0c0 constant 4>
        align:32 warn_if_not_align:0 symtab:0 alias-set -1
canonical-type 0x7ffff6d94f18
        fields <function_decl 0x7ffff6d98b00 __dt  type <method_type
            public abstract external autoinline decl_3 QI t.ii:1:8
align:16 warn_if_not_align:0 context <record_type 0x7ffff6d94f18 S>
            full-name "S::~S() noexcept (<uninstantiated>)"
            not-really-extern chain <function_decl 0x7ffff6d98d00
__dt_base >> context <translation_unit_decl 0x7ffff6c4a168 t.ii>
        full-name "struct S"
        X() X(constX&) this=(X&) n_parents=0 use_template=0 interface-unknown
        pointer_to_this <pointer_type 0x7ffff6da85e8>
reference_to_this <reference_type 0x7ffff6da8a80> chain <type_decl
0x7ffff6c6b850 S>>
    public static tree_1 tree_2 tree_3 BLK t.ii:3:3 size <integer_cst
0x7ffff6c5e0a8 32> unit-size <integer_cst 0x7ffff6c5e0c0 4>
    align:32 warn_if_not_align:0 context <translation_unit_decl
0x7ffff6c4a168 t.ii> initial <constructor 0x7ffff6da52a0> chain
<type_decl 0x7ffff6c6b850 S>>

and we assemble it like

        .globl  s
        .align 4
        .type   s, @object
        .size   s, 4
        .long   5
        .string "abcde"

note how we have .size s, 4 here...

of course in the end nobody cares about a symbols size ...(?)

I expected layout_decl to fixup DECL_SIZE according to the iniitalizer
but it looks like the initializer isn't present when it is layouted.

I think this is a middle-end flaw we should try to fix that either in
the FEs or in the middle-end.  The C FE calls add_flexible_array_elts_to_size
and complete_flexible_array_elts in its finish_decl routine (layouting happens
at build_decl time, too early, but if we want to move this functionality then
re-layouting might be posible).  I'm not sure about other FEs but I guess
the easiest point we could do sanity checking is when assemble_variable
outputs the constructor.

> Attached is an updated patch that uses fold_ctor_reference as you
> suggested.  I've also made a few other minor changes to diagnose
> a few more invalid strlen calls with out-of-bounds offsets.
> (More still remain.)

Thanks, but the patch was already large ... it would be nice to strip it
down to the bare bones again and do followup adjustments instead.


> Martin
> >
> > Richard.
> >
> >>
> >> Martin
> >>
> >> PS I imagine the new get_flexarray_size function will probably
> >> need to move somewhere more appropriate so that other warnings
> >> (like -Warray-bounds to remove the XFAILs) and optimizations
> >> can make use of it.

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