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[PATCH v9] add -fpatchable-function-entry=N,M option


Changes since v8:

  * Documentation changes as requested by Sandra
  * 3 functional test cases added

	Torsten


gcc/c-family/ChangeLog
2017-06-13  Torsten Duwe  <duwe@suse.de>

	* c-attribs.c (c_common_attribute_table): Add entry for
	"patchable_function_entry".

gcc/lto/ChangeLog
2017-06-13  Torsten Duwe  <duwe@suse.de>

	* lto-lang.c (lto_attribute_table): Add entry for
	"patchable_function_entry".

gcc/ChangeLog
2017-06-13  Torsten Duwe  <duwe@suse.de>

	* common.opt: Introduce -fpatchable-function-entry
	command line option, and its variables function_entry_patch_area_size
	and function_entry_patch_area_start.
	* opts.c (common_handle_option): Add -fpatchable_function_entry_ case,
	including a two-value parser.
	* target.def (print_patchable_function_entry): New target hook.
	* targhooks.h (default_print_patchable_function_entry): New function.
	* targhooks.c (default_print_patchable_function_entry): Likewise.
	* toplev.c (process_options): Switch off IPA-RA if
	patchable function entries are being generated.
	* varasm.c (assemble_start_function): Look at the
	patchable-function-entry command line switch and current
	function attributes and maybe generate NOP instructions by
	calling the print_patchable_function_entry hook.
	* doc/extend.texi: Document patchable_function_entry attribute.
	* doc/invoke.texi: Document -fpatchable_function_entry
	command line option.
	* doc/tm.texi.in (TARGET_ASM_PRINT_PATCHABLE_FUNCTION_ENTRY):
	New target hook.
	* doc/tm.texi: Likewise.

gcc/testsuite/ChangeLog
2017-06-13  Torsten Duwe  <duwe@suse.de>

	* c-c++-common/patchable_function_entry-default.c: New test.
	* c-c++-common/patchable_function_entry-decl.c: Likewise.
	* c-c++-common/patchable_function_entry-definition.c: Likewise.

diff --git a/gcc/c-family/c-attribs.c b/gcc/c-family/c-attribs.c
index f2a88e147ba..31137ce0433 100644
--- a/gcc/c-family/c-attribs.c
+++ b/gcc/c-family/c-attribs.c
@@ -139,6 +139,8 @@ static tree handle_bnd_variable_size_attribute (tree *, tree, tree, int, bool *)
 static tree handle_bnd_legacy (tree *, tree, tree, int, bool *);
 static tree handle_bnd_instrument (tree *, tree, tree, int, bool *);
 static tree handle_fallthrough_attribute (tree *, tree, tree, int, bool *);
+static tree handle_patchable_function_entry_attribute (tree *, tree, tree,
+						       int, bool *);
 
 /* Table of machine-independent attributes common to all C-like languages.
 
@@ -345,6 +347,9 @@ const struct attribute_spec c_common_attribute_table[] =
 			      handle_bnd_instrument, false },
   { "fallthrough",	      0, 0, false, false, false,
 			      handle_fallthrough_attribute, false },
+  { "patchable_function_entry",	1, 2, true, false, false,
+			      handle_patchable_function_entry_attribute,
+			      false },
   { NULL,                     0, 0, false, false, false, NULL, false }
 };
 
@@ -3173,3 +3178,10 @@ handle_fallthrough_attribute (tree *, tree name, tree, int,
   *no_add_attrs = true;
   return NULL_TREE;
 }
+
+static tree
+handle_patchable_function_entry_attribute (tree *, tree, tree, int, bool *)
+{
+  /* Nothing to be done here.  */
+  return NULL_TREE;
+}
diff --git a/gcc/common.opt b/gcc/common.opt
index a5c3aeaa336..f542590650c 100644
--- a/gcc/common.opt
+++ b/gcc/common.opt
@@ -163,6 +163,13 @@ bool flag_stack_usage_info = false
 Variable
 int flag_debug_asm
 
+; How many NOP insns to place at each function entry by default
+Variable
+HOST_WIDE_INT function_entry_patch_area_size
+
+; And how far the real asm entry point is into this area
+Variable
+HOST_WIDE_INT function_entry_patch_area_start
 
 ; Balance between GNAT encodings and standard DWARF to emit.
 Variable
@@ -2022,6 +2029,10 @@ fprofile-reorder-functions
 Common Report Var(flag_profile_reorder_functions)
 Enable function reordering that improves code placement.
 
+fpatchable-function-entry=
+Common Joined Optimization
+Insert NOP instructions at each function entry.
+
 frandom-seed
 Common Var(common_deferred_options) Defer
 
diff --git a/gcc/doc/extend.texi b/gcc/doc/extend.texi
index 1255995eb78..d09ccd90c42 100644
--- a/gcc/doc/extend.texi
+++ b/gcc/doc/extend.texi
@@ -3083,6 +3083,25 @@ that affect more than one function.
 This attribute should be used for debugging purposes only.  It is not
 suitable in production code.
 
+@item patchable_function_entry
+@cindex @code{patchable_function_entry} function attribute
+@cindex extra NOP instructions at the function entry point
+In case the target's text segment can be made writable at run time by
+any means, padding the function entry with a number of NOPs can be
+used to provide a universal tool for instrumentation.  Usually,
+patchable function entries are enabled globally using the
+@option{-fpatchable-function-entry=N,M} command-line switch, and
+disabled with attribute @code{patchable_function_entry (0)} for
+functions that are part of the actual instrumentation framework.
+This conveniently avoids an endless recursion.
+The @code{patchable_function_entry} function attribute can be used to
+change the number of NOPs to any desired value.  The two-value syntax
+is the same as for the command-line switch
+@option{-fpatchable-function-entry=N,M}, generating @var{N} NOPs, with
+the function entry point before the @var{M}th NOP instruction.
+@var{M} defaults to 0 if omitted e.g. function entry point is before
+the first NOP.
+
 @item pure
 @cindex @code{pure} function attribute
 @cindex functions that have no side effects
diff --git a/gcc/doc/invoke.texi b/gcc/doc/invoke.texi
index 68a558e9992..2e08387ad40 100644
--- a/gcc/doc/invoke.texi
+++ b/gcc/doc/invoke.texi
@@ -11384,6 +11384,34 @@ of the function name, it is considered to be a match.  For C99 and C++
 extended identifiers, the function name must be given in UTF-8, not
 using universal character names.
 
+@item -fpatchable-function-entry=@var{N}[,@var{M}]
+@opindex fpatchable-function-entry
+Generate @var{N} NOPs right at the beginning
+of each function, with the function entry point before the @var{M}th NOP.
+If @var{M} is omitted, it defaults to @code{0} so the
+function entry points to the address just at the first NOP.
+The NOP instructions reserve extra space which can be used to patch in
+any desired instrumentation at run time, provided that the code segment
+is writable.  The amount of space is controllable indirectly via
+the number of NOPs; the NOP instruction used corresponds to the instruction
+emitted by the internal GCC back-end interface @code{gen_nop}.  This behavior
+is target-specific and may also depend on the architecture variant and/or
+other compilation options.
+
+For run-time identification, the starting addresses of these areas,
+which correspond to their respective function entries minus @var{M},
+are additionally collected in the @code{__patchable_function_entries}
+section of the resulting binary.
+
+Note that the value of @code{__attribute__ ((patchable_function_entry
+(N,M)))} takes precedence over command-line option
+@option{-fpatchable-function-entry=N,M}.  This can be used to increase
+the area size or to remove it completely on a single function.
+If @code{N=0}, no pad location is recorded.
+
+The NOP instructions are inserted at --- and maybe before, depending on
+@var{M} --- the function entry address, even before the prologue.
+
 @end table
 
 
diff --git a/gcc/doc/tm.texi b/gcc/doc/tm.texi
index c4f2c893c8e..0e5e20904af 100644
--- a/gcc/doc/tm.texi
+++ b/gcc/doc/tm.texi
@@ -4566,6 +4566,12 @@ will select the smallest suitable mode.
 This section describes the macros that output function entry
 (@dfn{prologue}) and exit (@dfn{epilogue}) code.
 
+@deftypefn {Target Hook} void TARGET_ASM_PRINT_PATCHABLE_FUNCTION_ENTRY (FILE *@var{file}, unsigned HOST_WIDE_INT @var{patch_area_size}, bool @var{record_p})
+Generate a patchable area at a function start, consisting of
+@var{patch_area_size} NOP instructions.  Note the current location in
+a dedicated segment if @var{record_p} is true.   
+@end deftypefn
+
 @deftypefn {Target Hook} void TARGET_ASM_FUNCTION_PROLOGUE (FILE *@var{file}, HOST_WIDE_INT @var{size})
 If defined, a function that outputs the assembler code for entry to a
 function.  The prologue is responsible for setting up the stack frame,
diff --git a/gcc/doc/tm.texi.in b/gcc/doc/tm.texi.in
index 1c471d8da35..53696740f48 100644
--- a/gcc/doc/tm.texi.in
+++ b/gcc/doc/tm.texi.in
@@ -3650,6 +3650,8 @@ will select the smallest suitable mode.
 This section describes the macros that output function entry
 (@dfn{prologue}) and exit (@dfn{epilogue}) code.
 
+@hook TARGET_ASM_PRINT_PATCHABLE_FUNCTION_ENTRY
+
 @hook TARGET_ASM_FUNCTION_PROLOGUE
 
 @hook TARGET_ASM_FUNCTION_END_PROLOGUE
diff --git a/gcc/lto/lto-lang.c b/gcc/lto/lto-lang.c
index 52ab2a8cb81..2312ada48c6 100644
--- a/gcc/lto/lto-lang.c
+++ b/gcc/lto/lto-lang.c
@@ -48,6 +48,8 @@ static tree handle_sentinel_attribute (tree *, tree, tree, int, bool *);
 static tree handle_type_generic_attribute (tree *, tree, tree, int, bool *);
 static tree handle_transaction_pure_attribute (tree *, tree, tree, int, bool *);
 static tree handle_returns_twice_attribute (tree *, tree, tree, int, bool *);
+static tree handle_patchable_function_entry_attribute (tree *, tree, tree,
+						       int, bool *);
 static tree ignore_attribute (tree *, tree, tree, int, bool *);
 
 static tree handle_format_attribute (tree *, tree, tree, int, bool *);
@@ -76,6 +78,9 @@ const struct attribute_spec lto_attribute_table[] =
 			      handle_nonnull_attribute, false },
   { "nothrow",                0, 0, true,  false, false,
 			      handle_nothrow_attribute, false },
+  { "patchable_function_entry", 1, 2, true, false, false,
+			      handle_patchable_function_entry_attribute,
+			      false },
   { "returns_twice",          0, 0, true,  false, false,
 			      handle_returns_twice_attribute, false },
   { "sentinel",               0, 1, false, true, true,
@@ -473,6 +478,13 @@ handle_returns_twice_attribute (tree *node, tree ARG_UNUSED (name),
   return NULL_TREE;
 }
 
+static tree
+handle_patchable_function_entry_attribute (tree *, tree, tree, int, bool *)
+{
+  /* Nothing to be done here.  */
+  return NULL_TREE;
+}
+
 /* Ignore the given attribute.  Used when this attribute may be usefully
    overridden by the target, but is not used generically.  */
 
diff --git a/gcc/opts.c b/gcc/opts.c
index ffedb10f18f..f240c01f7d9 100644
--- a/gcc/opts.c
+++ b/gcc/opts.c
@@ -2155,6 +2155,33 @@ common_handle_option (struct gcc_options *opts,
         opts->x_flag_ipa_reference = false;
       break;
 
+    case OPT_fpatchable_function_entry_:
+      {
+	char *patch_area_arg = xstrdup (arg);
+	char *comma = strchr (patch_area_arg, ',');
+	if (comma)
+	  {
+	    *comma = '\0';
+	    function_entry_patch_area_size = 
+	      integral_argument (patch_area_arg);
+	    function_entry_patch_area_start =
+	      integral_argument (comma + 1);
+	  }
+	else
+	  {
+	    function_entry_patch_area_size =
+	      integral_argument (patch_area_arg);
+	    function_entry_patch_area_start = 0;
+	  }
+	if (function_entry_patch_area_size < 0
+	    || function_entry_patch_area_start < 0
+	    || function_entry_patch_area_size 
+		< function_entry_patch_area_start)
+	  error ("invalid arguments for %<-fpatchable_function_entry%>");
+	free (patch_area_arg);
+      }
+      break;
+
     case OPT_ftree_vectorize:
       if (!opts_set->x_flag_tree_loop_vectorize)
         opts->x_flag_tree_loop_vectorize = value;
diff --git a/gcc/target.def b/gcc/target.def
index 6bebfd5b9d6..53b60f3d276 100644
--- a/gcc/target.def
+++ b/gcc/target.def
@@ -288,6 +288,12 @@ hidden, protected or internal visibility as specified by @var{visibility}.",
  void, (tree decl, int visibility),
  default_assemble_visibility)
 
+DEFHOOK
+(print_patchable_function_entry,
+ "Generate a patchable area at the function start",
+ void, (FILE *file, unsigned HOST_WIDE_INT patch_area_size, bool record_p),
+ default_print_patchable_function_entry)
+
 /* Output the assembler code for entry to a function.  */
 DEFHOOK
 (function_prologue,
diff --git a/gcc/targhooks.c b/gcc/targhooks.c
index 1cdec068ed8..f3d9edafafe 100644
--- a/gcc/targhooks.c
+++ b/gcc/targhooks.c
@@ -1609,6 +1609,54 @@ default_compare_by_pieces_branch_ratio (machine_mode)
   return 1;
 }
 
+/* Write PATCH_AREA_SIZE NOPs into the asm outfile FILE around a function
+   entry.  If RECORD_P is true, the location of the NOPs will be
+   recorded in a special object section called "__patchable_function_entries".
+   This routine may be called twice per function to put NOPs before
+   and after the function entry.  */
+
+void
+default_print_patchable_function_entry (FILE *file,
+					unsigned HOST_WIDE_INT patch_area_size,
+					bool record_p)
+{
+  static const char *nop_templ = 0;
+
+  /* We use the template alone, relying on the (currently sane) assumption
+     that the NOP template does not have variable operands.  */
+  if (!nop_templ)
+    {
+      int code_num;
+      rtx_insn *my_nop = make_insn_raw (gen_nop ());
+
+      code_num = recog_memoized (my_nop);
+      nop_templ = get_insn_template (code_num, my_nop);
+    }
+
+  if (record_p)
+    {
+      char buf[256];
+      static int patch_area_number;
+      section *previous_section = in_section;
+
+      patch_area_number++;
+      ASM_GENERATE_INTERNAL_LABEL (buf, "LPFE", patch_area_number);
+
+      switch_to_section (get_section ("__patchable_function_entries",
+				      0, NULL));
+      fputs (integer_asm_op (POINTER_SIZE_UNITS, false), file);
+      assemble_name_raw (file, buf);
+      fputc ('\n', file);
+
+      switch_to_section (previous_section);
+      ASM_OUTPUT_LABEL (file, buf);
+    }
+
+  unsigned i;
+  for (i = 0; i < patch_area_size; ++i)
+    fprintf (file, "\t%s\n", nop_templ);
+}
+
 bool
 default_profile_before_prologue (void)
 {
diff --git a/gcc/targhooks.h b/gcc/targhooks.h
index 18070df7839..6206fe20823 100644
--- a/gcc/targhooks.h
+++ b/gcc/targhooks.h
@@ -203,6 +203,9 @@ extern bool default_use_by_pieces_infrastructure_p (unsigned HOST_WIDE_INT,
 						    bool);
 extern int default_compare_by_pieces_branch_ratio (machine_mode);
 
+extern void default_print_patchable_function_entry (FILE *,
+						    unsigned HOST_WIDE_INT,
+						    bool);
 extern bool default_profile_before_prologue (void);
 extern reg_class_t default_preferred_reload_class (rtx, reg_class_t);
 extern reg_class_t default_preferred_output_reload_class (rtx, reg_class_t);
diff --git a/gcc/testsuite/c-c++-common/patchable_function_entry-decl.c b/gcc/testsuite/c-c++-common/patchable_function_entry-decl.c
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..8514b10e820
--- /dev/null
+++ b/gcc/testsuite/c-c++-common/patchable_function_entry-decl.c
@@ -0,0 +1,16 @@
+/* { dg-do compile } */
+/* { dg-options "-O2 -fpatchable-function-entry=3,1" } */
+/* { dg-final { scan-assembler-times "nop" 2 } } */
+
+extern int a;
+
+/* Respect overriding attributes in the declaration.  */
+int f3 (void) __attribute__((patchable_function_entry(2)));
+
+/* F3 should now get 2 NOPs.  */
+int
+__attribute__((noinline))
+f3 (void)
+{
+  return 5*a;
+}
diff --git a/gcc/testsuite/c-c++-common/patchable_function_entry-default.c b/gcc/testsuite/c-c++-common/patchable_function_entry-default.c
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..0dcf1181dde
--- /dev/null
+++ b/gcc/testsuite/c-c++-common/patchable_function_entry-default.c
@@ -0,0 +1,16 @@
+/* { dg-do compile } */
+/* { dg-options "-O2 -fpatchable-function-entry=3,1" } */
+/* { dg-final { scan-assembler-times "nop" 3 } } */
+
+extern int a;
+
+/* Nothing declared must not mean anything.  */
+int f3 (void);
+
+/* F3 should get a default-sized NOP area.  */
+int
+__attribute__((noinline))
+f3 (void)
+{
+  return 5*a;
+}
diff --git a/gcc/testsuite/c-c++-common/patchable_function_entry-definition.c b/gcc/testsuite/c-c++-common/patchable_function_entry-definition.c
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..a007867dcb0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/gcc/testsuite/c-c++-common/patchable_function_entry-definition.c
@@ -0,0 +1,16 @@
+/* { dg-do compile } */
+/* { dg-options "-O2 -fpatchable-function-entry=3,1" } */
+/* { dg-final { scan-assembler-times "nop" 1 } } */
+
+extern int a;
+
+int f3 (void);
+
+/* F3 should now get 1 NOP.  */
+int
+__attribute__((noinline))
+__attribute__((patchable_function_entry(1)))
+f3 (void)
+{
+  return 5*a;
+}
diff --git a/gcc/toplev.c b/gcc/toplev.c
index f1384fc2fda..84969fb8ef4 100644
--- a/gcc/toplev.c
+++ b/gcc/toplev.c
@@ -1612,8 +1612,10 @@ process_options (void)
     }
 
  /* Do not use IPA optimizations for register allocation if profiler is active
+    or patchable function entries are inserted for run-time instrumentation
     or port does not emit prologue and epilogue as RTL.  */
-  if (profile_flag || !targetm.have_prologue () || !targetm.have_epilogue ())
+  if (profile_flag || function_entry_patch_area_size
+      || !targetm.have_prologue () || !targetm.have_epilogue ())
     flag_ipa_ra = 0;
 
   /* Enable -Werror=coverage-mismatch when -Werror and -Wno-error
diff --git a/gcc/varasm.c b/gcc/varasm.c
index 05e48a5b894..6c3a56419e8 100644
--- a/gcc/varasm.c
+++ b/gcc/varasm.c
@@ -1830,6 +1830,46 @@ assemble_start_function (tree decl, const char *fnname)
   if (DECL_PRESERVE_P (decl))
     targetm.asm_out.mark_decl_preserved (fnname);
 
+  unsigned HOST_WIDE_INT patch_area_size = function_entry_patch_area_size;
+  unsigned HOST_WIDE_INT patch_area_entry = function_entry_patch_area_start;
+
+  tree patchable_function_entry_attr
+    = lookup_attribute ("patchable_function_entry", DECL_ATTRIBUTES (decl));
+  if (patchable_function_entry_attr)
+    {
+      tree pp_val = TREE_VALUE (patchable_function_entry_attr);
+      tree patchable_function_entry_value1 = TREE_VALUE (pp_val);
+
+      if (tree_fits_uhwi_p (patchable_function_entry_value1))
+	patch_area_size = tree_to_uhwi (patchable_function_entry_value1);
+      else
+	gcc_unreachable ();
+
+      patch_area_entry = 0;
+      if (list_length (pp_val) > 1)
+	{
+	  tree patchable_function_entry_value2 =
+	    TREE_VALUE (TREE_CHAIN (pp_val));
+
+	  if (tree_fits_uhwi_p (patchable_function_entry_value2))
+	    patch_area_entry = tree_to_uhwi (patchable_function_entry_value2);
+	  else
+	    gcc_unreachable ();
+	}
+    }
+
+  if (patch_area_entry > patch_area_size)
+    {
+      if (patch_area_size > 0)
+	warning (OPT_Wattributes, "Patchable function entry > size");
+      patch_area_entry = 0;
+    }
+
+  /* Emit the patching area before the entry label, if any.  */
+  if (patch_area_entry > 0)
+    targetm.asm_out.print_patchable_function_entry (asm_out_file,
+						    patch_area_entry, true);
+
   /* Do any machine/system dependent processing of the function name.  */
 #ifdef ASM_DECLARE_FUNCTION_NAME
   ASM_DECLARE_FUNCTION_NAME (asm_out_file, fnname, current_function_decl);
@@ -1838,6 +1878,12 @@ assemble_start_function (tree decl, const char *fnname)
   ASM_OUTPUT_FUNCTION_LABEL (asm_out_file, fnname, current_function_decl);
 #endif /* ASM_DECLARE_FUNCTION_NAME */
 
+  /* And the area after the label.  Record it if we haven't done so yet.  */
+  if (patch_area_size > patch_area_entry)
+    targetm.asm_out.print_patchable_function_entry (asm_out_file,
+					     patch_area_size-patch_area_entry,
+						    patch_area_entry == 0);
+
   if (lookup_attribute ("no_split_stack", DECL_ATTRIBUTES (decl)))
     saw_no_split_stack = true;
 }


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