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Re: Aliasing rules for unannotated SYMBOL_REFs

On Sat, 2020-01-25 at 09:31 +0000, Richard Sandiford wrote:
> TL;DR: if we have two bare SYMBOL_REFs X and Y, neither of which have an
> associated source-level decl and neither of which are in an anchor block:
> (Q1) can a valid byte access at X+C alias a valid byte access at Y+C?
> (Q2) can a valid byte access at X+C1 alias a valid byte access at Y+C2,
>      C1 != C2?
> Also:
> (Q3) If X has a source-level decl and Y doesn't, and neither of them are
>      in an anchor block, can valid accesses based on X alias valid accesses
>      based on Y?
So what are the  cases where Y won't have a source level decl but we
have a decl in RTL?  anchors, other cases? 

> (well, OK, that wasn't too short either...)
I would have thought the answer would be "no" across the board.  But
the code clearly indicates otherwise.

Interposition clearly complicates things as do explicit aliases though.

> This part seems obvious enough.  But then, apart from the special case of
> forced address alignment, we use an offset-based check even for cmp==-1:
>       /* Assume a potential overlap for symbolic addresses that went
> 	 through alignment adjustments (i.e., that have negative
> 	 sizes), because we can't know how far they are from each
> 	 other.  */
>       if (maybe_lt (xsize, 0) || maybe_lt (ysize, 0))
> 	return -1;
>       /* If decls are different or we know by offsets that there is no overlap,
> 	 we win.  */
>       if (!cmp || !offset_overlap_p (c, xsize, ysize))
> 	return 0;
> So we seem to be taking cmp==-1 to mean that although we don't know
> the relationship between the symbols, it must be the case that either
> (a) the symbols are equal (e.g. via aliasing) or (b) the accesses are
> to non-overlapping objects.  In other words, one of the situations
> described by cmp==1 or cmp==0 must be true, but we don't know which
> at compile time.
Right.  That was the conclusion I came to.  If a  SYMBOL_REF has an
alias, the alias must have the same value as the SYMBOL_REF.  So their
either equal or there's no valid case for overlap.

> This means that in practice, the answer to (Q1) appears to be "yes"
> but the answer to (Q2) appears to be "no".
That would be my understanding once aliases/interpositioning come into

> This somewhat contradicts:
>   /* In general we assume that memory locations pointed to by different labels
>      may overlap in undefined ways.  */
>   return -1;
> at the end of compare_base_symbol_refs, which seems to be saying
> that the answer to (Q2) ought to be "yes" instead.  Which is right?
I'm not sure how we could get to yes in that case.  A symbol alias or
interposition ultimately still results in two symbols having the same
final address.  Thus for a byte access if C1 != C2, then we can't have
an overlap.

> In PR92294 we have a symbol X at ANCHOR+OFFSET that's preemptible.
> Under the (Q1)==yes/(Q2)==no assumption, cmp==-1 means that either
> (a) X = ANCHOR+OFFSET or (b) X and ANCHOR reference non-overlapping
> objects.  So we should take the offset into account when doing:
>       if (!cmp || !offset_overlap_p (c, xsize, ysize))
> 	return 0;
> Let's call this FIX1.
So this is a really interesting wrinkle.  Doesn't this change Q2 to a
yes?  In particular it changes the "invariant" that the symbols have
the same address in the event of an symbol alias or interposition.  Of
course one could ask the question of whether or not we should handle
cases with anchors specially.

> But that then brings us to: why does memrefs_conflict_p return -1
> when one symbol X has a decl and the other symbol Y doesn't, and neither
> of them are block symbols?  Is the answer to (Q3) that we allow equality
> but not overlap here too?  E.g. a linker script could define Y to X but
> not to a region that contains X at a nonzero offset?
Does digging into the history provide any insights here?

I'm not sure given the issues you've introduced if I could actually
fill out the matrix of answers without more underlying information. 
ie, when can we get symbols without source level decls, 
anchors+interposition issues, etc.


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