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Re: [PATCH v4][C][ADA] use function descriptors instead of trampolines in C

On 12/16/18 3:45 PM, Uecker, Martin wrote:
> Am Sonntag, den 16.12.2018, 09:13 -0700 schrieb Jeff Law:
>> On 12/16/18 6:45 AM, Uecker, Martin wrote:
>>> Am Freitag, den 14.12.2018, 18:20 -0700 schrieb Martin Sebor:
>>>> On 12/14/18 4:36 PM, Jeff Law wrote:
>>>>> On 12/14/18 3:05 AM, Uecker, Martin wrote:
>>>>>> Am Donnerstag, den 13.12.2018, 16:35 -0700 schrieb Jeff Law:
>>>>>>> On 12/12/18 11:12 AM, Uecker, Martin wrote:
>>>>>> ...
>>>>>>>>>> diff --git a/gcc/c/c-objc-common.h b/gcc/c/c-objc-common.h
>>>>>>>>>> index 78e768c2366..ef039560eb9 100644
>>>>>>>>>> --- a/gcc/c/c-objc-common.h
>>>>>>>>>> +++ b/gcc/c/c-objc-common.h
>>>>>>>>>> @@ -110,4 +110,7 @@ along with GCC; see the file COPYING3.  If
>>>>>>>>>> not see
>>>>>>>>>>   #define LANG_HOOKS_TREE_INLINING_VAR_MOD_TYPE_P c_vla_unspec_p
>>>>>>>>>> +
>>>>>>>>>>   #endif /* GCC_C_OBJC_COMMON */
>>>>>>>>> I wonder if we even need the lang hook anymore.  ISTM that a
>>>>>>>>> front-end
>>>>>>>>> that wants to use the function descriptors can just set
>>>>>>>>> FUNC_ADDR_BY_DESCRIPTOR and we'd use the function descriptor,
>>>>>>>>> else we'll
>>>>>>>>> use the trampoline.  Thoughts?
>>>>>>>> The lang hook also affects the minimum alignment for function
>>>>>>>> pointers via the FUNCTION_ALIGNMENT macro (gcc/default.h). This
>>>>>>>> does
>>>>>>>> not appear to change the default alignment on any architecture, but
>>>>>>>> it causes a failure in i386/ when
>>>>>>>> requesting a smaller alignment which is then silently ignored.
>>>>>>> Ugh.  I didn't see that.
>>>>>> The test is new (2019-11-29 Martin Sebor), but one could
>>>>>> argue that we could simply remove this specific test as 'aligned'
>>>>>> is only required to increase alignment. Martin?
>>>>> The test is meant to test that we do the right thing consistently.  If
>>>>> we're failing with your patch, then that needs to be addressed.
>>>> I haven't been paying attention here and so I don't know how the test
>>>> fails after the change.  It's meant to verify that attribute aligned
>>>> successfully reduces the alignment of functions that have not been
>>>> previously declared with one all the way down to the supported minimum
>>>> (which is 1 on i386).  I agree with Jeff that removing the test would
>>>> not be right unless the failure is due to some bad assumptions on my
>>>> part.  If it's the built-in that fails that could be due to a bug in
>>>> it (it's very new).
>>> There is a choice to be made: 
>>> Either we activate the lang hook for C, then the minimum alignment for
>>> functions on is not 1 anymore, because we need one bit to identify the 
>>> descriptors.  From a correcntess point of view, this is OK as 'alignas'
>>> is only required to increase alignment. It is also not really regression
>>> in my opinion, as it is nowhere documented that one can reduce alignment
>>> to '1'. The test also has just been added a couple of days ago (if I am
>>> not mistaken). For these reasons, I think it would be OK to remove the test.
>>> The other option is to decide that having an alignment of only '1'
>>> is a valuable feature and should be preserved on those platforms which
>>> support it. I have no idea what this could be good for, but maybe
>>> there are use cases.  In this case, it makes of course sense to keep
>>> the test.  We should then remove the lang hook (as it could never be
>>> activated for most languages) and instead live with the fact that
>>> '-fno-trampoline' and using alignof(1) on functions are simply
>>> incompatible. A warning could be added if the compiler sees
>>> alignof(1) when -fno-trampoline is active.
>> There's certainly targets where 1 byte function alignment is important
>> from a code space perspective -- it's likely that function descriptors
>> will never be supported on those targets.
> But most architectures require a higher alignment anyway.
> Here is a list of all targets where function alignment
> is 1 byte:
> gcc/config/avr/avr.h:#define FUNCTION_BOUNDARY 8
> gcc/config/i386/i386.h:#define FUNCTION_BOUNDARY 8
> gcc/config/m32c/m32c.h:#define FUNCTION_BOUNDARY 8
> gcc/config/mn10300/mn10300.h:#define FUNCTION_BOUNDARY 8
> gcc/config/pa/pa.h:#define FUNCTION_BOUNDARY BITS_PER_WORD
> gcc/config/rl78/rl78.h:#define FUNCTION_BOUNDARY 		8
> gcc/config/rx/rx.h:#define FUNCTION_BOUNDARY 		((rx_cpu_type == RX100 || rx_cpu_type == RX200) ? 4 : 8)

> From this list only i386 currently adds the target hook and
> would be affected by this patch. But arm is also affected:
>> It's also important to remember that not every target which uses
>> function descriptors uses the LSB.  On some targets the LSB may switch
>> between modes (arm vs thumb for example).  So on those targets the use
>> of descriptors may imply an even larger minimum alignment.
> Yes, arm reserves the lowest 2 bits so since we require an additional
> bit and this increases the minimum alignment from 4 to 8 bytes on 
> aarch64.
> Here are the architectures which currently support function
> descriptors and the bit used:
> $ grep TARGET_CUSTOM gcc/config/*/*.c | grep define
> gcc/config/aarch64/aarch64.c:#define TARGET_CUSTOM_FUNCTION_DESCRIPTORS 4
> gcc/config/arm/arm.c:#define TARGET_CUSTOM_FUNCTION_DESCRIPTORS 2
> gcc/config/csky/csky.c:#define TARGET_CUSTOM_FUNCTION_DESCRIPTORS 1
> gcc/config/i386/i386.c:#define TARGET_CUSTOM_FUNCTION_DESCRIPTORS 1
> gcc/config/ia64/ia64.c:#define TARGET_CUSTOM_FUNCTION_DESCRIPTORS 0
> gcc/config/mips/mips.c:#define TARGET_CUSTOM_FUNCTION_DESCRIPTORS 2
> gcc/config/or1k/or1k.c:#define TARGET_CUSTOM_FUNCTION_DESCRIPTORS 1
> gcc/config/powerpcspe/powerpcspe.c:#define TARGET_CUSTOM_FUNCTION_DESCRIPTORS 1
> gcc/config/riscv/riscv.c:#define TARGET_CUSTOM_FUNCTION_DESCRIPTORS 1
> gcc/config/rs6000/rs6000.c:#define TARGET_CUSTOM_FUNCTION_DESCRIPTORS 1
> gcc/config/s390/s390.c:#define TARGET_CUSTOM_FUNCTION_DESCRIPTORS 1
> gcc/config/sparc/sparc.c:#define TARGET_CUSTOM_FUNCTION_DESCRIPTORS 1
> For mips minimum alignment is 4 bytes, so here alignment would
> not change.
>> Ultimately using function descriptors is an ABI breaking choice and we
>> might declare that function descriptors imply higher function
>> alignments.  
> Increasing the alignment is not an ABI breaking change.
Increasing alignment is also an ABI change if you make those low bits
have a new meaning.  Existing code won't know if the target address is
actually a function descriptor or just a minimally aligned real function.

It's not terribly important, but the HPPA bits above are wrong.  It's
minimum alignment is 4 bytes.  The low two bits are used for two
different style function descriptors that already exist on that
platform.  We may have lied about this to prevent combine from mucking
with anything that examined or modified the low bits in a function address.

> But the alignment increase itself on 'i386' and 'aarch64'
> might be unacceptable. In this case, the only safe change
> is to make the higher alignment also depend on
> "-fno-trampolines".  Would this be acceptable?
Unclear at this point.


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