This is the mail archive of the
`gcc-patches@gcc.gnu.org`
mailing list for the GCC project.

Index Nav: | [Date Index] [Subject Index] [Author Index] [Thread Index] | |
---|---|---|

Message Nav: | [Date Prev] [Date Next] | [Thread Prev] [Thread Next] |

Other format: | [Raw text] |

*From*: Sebastian Pop <sebastian dot pop at cri dot ensmp dot fr>*To*: gcc-patches at gcc dot gnu dot org*Date*: Wed, 3 Mar 2004 17:10:29 +0100*Subject*: [lno] Update the scalar evolutions algorithm

Hi, This patch updates the scalar evolution algorithm. The analysis is about 3000 lines down from about 4500. I've also included the pass of checks elimination on which I'm working, even if the compiler does not bootstraps with it enabled, because I'm using it for testing the behaviour of the analyzer: see testsuite/.../ssa-chrec-04.c and others testcases. In order to correct this optimization pass I have to modify the way the analyzer deals with the types of the scalars it analyzes. I'm attaching the documentation for both these passes. A higher level presentation of the extraction algorithm is available as a set of slides: http://cri.ensmp.fr/~pop/gcc/feb04/slides.pdf /* Description: This pass analyzes the evolution of scalar variables in loop structures. The algorithm is based on the SSA representation, and on the loop hierarchy tree. This algorithm is not based on the notion of versions of a variable, as it was the case for the previous implementations of the scalar evolution algorithm, but it assumes that each defined name is unique. A short sketch of the algorithm is: Given a scalar variable to be analyzed, follow the SSA edge to its definition: - When the definition is a MODIFY_EXPR: if the right hand side (RHS) of the definition cannot be statically analyzed, the answer of the analyzer is: "don't know", that corresponds to the conservative [-oo, +oo] element of the lattice of intervals. Otherwise, for all the variables that are not yet analyzed in the RHS, try to determine their evolution, and finally try to evaluate the operation of the RHS that gives the evolution function of the analyzed variable. - When the definition is a condition-phi-node: determine the evolution function for all the branches of the phi node, and finally merge these evolutions (see chrec_merge). - When the definition is a loop-phi-node: determine its initial condition, that is the SSA edge defined in an outer loop, and keep it symbolic. Then determine the SSA edges that are defined in the body of the loop. Follow the inner edges until ending on another loop-phi-node of the same analyzed loop. If the reached loop-phi-node is not the starting loop-phi-node, then we keep this definition under a symbolic form. If the reached loop-phi-node is the same as the starting one, then we compute a symbolic stride on the return path. The result is then the symbolic chrec {initial_condition, +, symbolic_stride}_loop. Examples: Example 1: Illustration of the basic algorithm. | a = 3 | loop_1 | b = phi (a, c) | c = b + 1 | if (c > 10) exit_loop | endloop Suppose that we want to know the number of iterations of the loop_1. The exit_loop is controlled by a COND_EXPR (c > 10). We ask the scalar evolution analyzer two questions: what's the scalar evolution (scev) of "c", and what's the scev of "10". For "10" the answer is "10" since it is a scalar constant. For the scalar variable "c", it follows the SSA edge to its definition, "c = b + 1", and then asks again what's the scev of "b". Following the SSA edge, we end on a loop-phi-node "b = phi (a, c)", where the initial condition is "a", and the inner loop edge is "c". The initial condition is kept under a symbolic form (it may be the case that the copy constant propagation has done its work and we end with the constant "3" as one of the edges of the loop-phi-node). The update edge is followed to the end of the loop, and until reaching again the starting loop-phi-node: b -> c -> b. At this point we have drawn a path from "b" to "b" from which we compute the stride in the loop: in this example it is "+1". The resulting scev for "b" is "b -> {a, +, 1}_1". Now that the scev for "b" is known, it is possible to compute the scev for "c", that is "c -> {a + 1, +, 1}_1". In order to determine the number of iterations in the loop_1, we have to instantiate_parameters ({a + 1, +, 1}_1), that gives after some more analysis the scev {4, +, 1}_1, or in other words, this is the function "f (x) = x + 4", where x is the iteration count of the loop_1. Now we have to solve the inequality "x + 4 > 10", and take the smallest iteration number for which the loop is exited: x = 7. This loop runs from x = 0 to x = 7, and in total there are 8 iterations. In terms of loop normalization, we have created a variable that is implicitly defined, "x" or just "_1", and all the other analyzed scalars of the loop are defined in function of this variable: a -> 3 b -> {3, +, 1}_1 c -> {4, +, 1}_1 or in terms of a C program: | a = 3 | for (x = 0; x <= 7; x++) | { | b = x + 3 | c = x + 4 | } Example 2: Illustration of the algorithm on nested loops. | loop_1 | a = phi (1, b) | c = a + 2 | loop_2 10 times | b = phi (c, d) | d = b + 3 | endloop | endloop For analyzing the scalar evolution of "a", the algorithm follows the SSA edge into the loop's body: "a -> b". "b" is an inner loop-phi-node, and its analysis as in Example 1, gives: b -> {c, +, 3}_2 d -> {c + 3, +, 3}_2 Following the SSA edge for the initial condition, we end on "c = a + 2", and then on the starting loop-phi-node "a". From this point, the loop stride is computed: back on "c = a + 2" we get a "+2" in the loop_1, then on the loop-phi-node "b" we compute the overall effect of the inner loop that is "b = c + 30", and we get a "+30" in the loop_1. That means that the overall stride in loop_1 is equal to "+32", and the result is: a -> {1, +, 32}_1 c -> {3, +, 32}_1 Example 3: Higher degree polynomials. | loop_1 | a = phi (2, b) | c = phi (5, d) | b = a + 1 | d = c + a | endloop a -> {2, +, 1}_1 b -> {3, +, 1}_1 c -> {5, +, a}_1 d -> {5 + a, +, a}_1 instantiate_parameters ({5, +, a}_1) -> {5, +, 2, +, 1}_1 instantiate_parameters ({5 + a, +, a}_1) -> {7, +, 3, +, 1}_1 Example 4: Lucas, Fibonacci, or mixers in general. | loop_1 | a = phi (1, b) | c = phi (3, d) | b = c | d = c + a | endloop a -> (1, c)_1 c -> {3, +, a}_1 The syntax "(1, c)_1" stands for a PEELED_CHREC that has the following semantics: during the first iteration of the loop_1, the variable contains the value 1, and then it contains the value "c". Note that this syntax is close to the syntax of the loop-phi-node: "a -> (1, c)_1" vs. "a = phi (1, c)". The symbolic chrec representation contains all the semantics of the original code. What is more difficult is to use this information. Example 5: Flip-flops, or exchangers. | loop_1 | a = phi (1, b) | c = phi (3, d) | b = c | d = a | endloop a -> (1, c)_1 c -> (3, a)_1 Based on these symbolic chrecs, it is possible to refine this information into the more precise PERIODIC_CHRECs: a -> |1, 3|_1 c -> |3, 1|_1 This transformation is not yet implemented. Further readings: You can find a more detailed description of the algorithm in: http://icps.u-strasbg.fr/~pop/DEA_03_Pop.pdf http://icps.u-strasbg.fr/~pop/DEA_03_Pop.ps.gz. But note that this is a preliminary report and some of the details of the algorithm have changed. I'm working on a research report that updates the description of the algorithms to reflect the design choices used in this implementation. Fixmes: FIXME taylor: This FIXME concerns all the cases where we have to deal with additions of exponential functions: "exp + exp" or "poly + exp" or "cst + exp". This could be handled by a Taylor decomposition of the exponential function, but this is still under construction (not implemented yet, or chrec_top). The idea is to represent the exponential evolution functions using infinite degree polynomials: | a -> {1, *, 2}_1 = {1, +, 1, +, 1, +, ...}_1 = {1, +, a}_1 Proof: \begin{eqnarray*} \{1, *, t+1\} (x) &=& exp \left(log (1) + log (t+1) \binom{x}{1} \right) \\ &=& (t+1)^x \\ &=& \binom{x}{0} + \binom{x}{1}t + \binom{x}{2}t^2 + \ldots + \binom{x}{x}t^x \\ &=& \{1, +, t, +, t^2, +, \ldots, +, t^x\} \\ \end{eqnarray*} While this equality is simple to prove for exponentials of degree 1, it is still work in progress for higher degree exponentials. */ /* Description: Compute the scalar evolutions for all the scalar variables of a condition expression, and based on this information performs a proof. The condition is rewritten based on the result of this proof. Examples: Example 1: A simple illustration of the algorithm. Given the COND_EXPR "if (a < b)" with "a -> {2, +, 1}_1" and "b -> {3, +, 1}_1", the proof consists in comparing these evolution functions: is it always true for a given iteration x that "{2, +, 1}_1 (x) < {3, +, 1}_1 (x)"? The answer is yes, and the test of the condition is consequently replaced by "1". Further readings: There is no further readings for the moment. Based on the fact that this algorithm is similar to the Value Range Propagation you can have a look at the corresponding papers. */ Changelog: * Makefile.in (OBJS-common): Add tree-elim-check.o. (tree-chrec.o): Add dependence on tree-pass.h. (tree-elim-check.o): New rule. * tree-elim-check.c: New file. * basic-block.h (edge_source, edge_destination): New inlined functions. * cfgloop.h (loop_nb_iterations): Added a comment on the use of this accessor. * common.opt (ftree-elim-checks): New flag. * flags.h (flag_tree_elim_checks): Declared here. * opts.c (decode_options): Set flag_tree_elim_checks to zero. (common_handle_option): Add case OPT_ftree_elim_checks. * timevar.def (TV_TREE_ELIM_CHECKS): Defined. * toplev.c (flag_tree_elim_checks): Defined. * tree-cfg.c (print_pred_bbs, print_succ_bbs, print_loop): Modify the dumping style. Print nb_iterations. * tree-chrec.c, tree-chrec.h, tree-scalar-evolution.c, tree-scalar-evolution.h, tree-data-ref.c: New version. * tree-fold-const.c (tree_fold_bezout): Define. * tree-fold-const.h (tree_fold_int_round_div, tree_fold_int_trunc_mod, tree_fold_int_ceil_mod, tree_fold_int_floor_mod, tree_fold_int_round_mod): Removed, because not used for the moment. (chrec_merge_types): New function. * tree-optimize.c (pass_scev_elim_checks): Register the pass. * tree-pass.h (pass_scev_elim_checks): Declare the pass. * tree-pretty-print.c (dump_generic_node): Print PEELED_CHREC. Remove PERIODIC_CHREC. * tree-vectorizer.c (): Modify the use of analyze_scalar_evolution. * tree.def (POLYNOMIAL_CHREC, EXPONENTIAL_CHREC): Store the evolution loop in a third leaf instead of in TREE_TYPE. TREE_TYPE is then used in storing the type of the chrec. (PERIODIC_CHREC): Removed since it is not used for the moment. (PEELED_CHREC): New node. * doc/invoke.texi (fdump-tree-scev, fdump-tree-ddall): Correct the name of these flags. (ftree-elim-checks, fdump-tree-elck): Document.

/* Elimination of redundant checks. Copyright (C) 2004 Free Software Foundation, Inc. Contributed by Sebastian Pop <sebastian.pop@cri.ensmp.fr> This file is part of GCC. GCC is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option) any later version. GCC is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with GCC; see the file COPYING. If not, write to the Free Software Foundation, 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA. */ /* Description: Compute the scalar evolutions for all the scalar variables of a condition expression, and based on this information performs a proof. The condition is rewritten based on the result of this proof. Examples: Example 1: A simple illustration of the algorithm. Given the COND_EXPR "if (a < b)" with "a -> {2, +, 1}_1" and "b -> {3, +, 1}_1", the proof consists in comparing these evolution functions: is it always true for a given iteration x that "{2, +, 1}_1 (x) < {3, +, 1}_1 (x)"? The answer is yes, and the test of the condition is consequently replaced by "1". Further readings: There is no further readings for the moment. Based on the fact that this algorithm is similar to the Value Range Propagation you can have a look at the corresponding papers. */ #include "config.h" #include "system.h" #include "coretypes.h" #include "tm.h" #include "errors.h" #include "ggc.h" #include "tree.h" /* These RTL headers are needed for basic-block.h. */ #include "rtl.h" #include "basic-block.h" #include "diagnostic.h" #include "tree-flow.h" #include "tree-dump.h" #include "timevar.h" #include "cfgloop.h" #include "tree-fold-const.h" #include "tree-chrec.h" #include "tree-data-ref.h" #include "tree-scalar-evolution.h" #include "tree-pass.h" #include "flags.h" static void remove_redundant_check (tree, bool); static void try_eliminate_check (tree); static void scan_all_loops_r (struct loop *); /* Remove the check by setting the condition COND to VALUE. */ static void remove_redundant_check (tree cond, bool value) { /* A dead COND_EXPR means the condition is dead. We don't change any flow, just replace the expression with a constant. */ if (tree_dump_file && (tree_dump_flags & TDF_DETAILS)) fprintf (tree_dump_file, "Replacing one of the conditions.\n"); if (value == true) COND_EXPR_COND (cond) = integer_one_node; else COND_EXPR_COND (cond) = integer_zero_node; modify_stmt (cond); } /* If the condition TEST is decidable at compile time, then eliminate the check. */ static void try_eliminate_check (tree cond) { bool value; tree test, opnd0, opnd1; tree chrec0, chrec1; unsigned loop_nb = loop_num (loop_of_stmt (cond)); if (tree_dump_file && (tree_dump_flags & TDF_DETAILS)) { fprintf (tree_dump_file, "(try_eliminate_check \n"); fprintf (tree_dump_file, " (cond = "); print_generic_expr (tree_dump_file, cond, 0); fprintf (tree_dump_file, ")\n"); } test = COND_EXPR_COND (cond); switch (TREE_CODE (test)) { case SSA_NAME: /* Matched "if (opnd0)" ie, "if (opnd0 != 0)". */ opnd0 = test; chrec0 = analyze_scalar_evolution (loop_nb, opnd0); if (chrec_contains_undetermined (chrec0)) break; chrec0 = instantiate_parameters (loop_nb, chrec0); if (tree_dump_file && (tree_dump_flags & TDF_DETAILS)) { fprintf (tree_dump_file, " (test = "); print_generic_expr (tree_dump_file, test, 0); fprintf (tree_dump_file, ")\n (loop_nb = %d)\n (chrec0 = ", loop_nb); print_generic_expr (tree_dump_file, chrec0, 0); fprintf (tree_dump_file, ")\n"); } if (prove_truth_value_ne (chrec0, integer_zero_node, &value)) remove_redundant_check (cond, value); break; case LT_EXPR: case LE_EXPR: case GT_EXPR: case GE_EXPR: case EQ_EXPR: case NE_EXPR: opnd0 = TREE_OPERAND (test, 0); opnd1 = TREE_OPERAND (test, 1); chrec0 = analyze_scalar_evolution (loop_nb, opnd0); if (chrec_contains_undetermined (chrec0)) break; chrec1 = analyze_scalar_evolution (loop_nb, opnd1); if (chrec_contains_undetermined (chrec1)) break; chrec0 = instantiate_parameters (loop_nb, chrec0); chrec1 = instantiate_parameters (loop_nb, chrec1); if (tree_dump_file && (tree_dump_flags & TDF_DETAILS)) { fprintf (tree_dump_file, " (test = "); print_generic_expr (tree_dump_file, test, 0); fprintf (tree_dump_file, ")\n (loop_nb = %d)\n (chrec0 = ", loop_nb); print_generic_expr (tree_dump_file, chrec0, 0); fprintf (tree_dump_file, ")\n (chrec1 = "); print_generic_expr (tree_dump_file, chrec1, 0); fprintf (tree_dump_file, ")\n"); } switch (TREE_CODE (test)) { case LT_EXPR: if (prove_truth_value_lt (chrec0, chrec1, &value)) remove_redundant_check (cond, value); break; case LE_EXPR: if (prove_truth_value_le (chrec0, chrec1, &value)) remove_redundant_check (cond, value); break; case GT_EXPR: if (prove_truth_value_gt (chrec0, chrec1, &value)) remove_redundant_check (cond, value); break; case GE_EXPR: if (prove_truth_value_ge (chrec0, chrec1, &value)) remove_redundant_check (cond, value); break; case EQ_EXPR: if (prove_truth_value_eq (chrec0, chrec1, &value)) remove_redundant_check (cond, value); break; case NE_EXPR: if (prove_truth_value_ne (chrec0, chrec1, &value)) remove_redundant_check (cond, value); break; default: break; } break; default: break; } if (tree_dump_file && (tree_dump_flags & TDF_DETAILS)) fprintf (tree_dump_file, ")\n"); } /* Compute the exit edges for all the loops. */ static void scan_all_loops_r (struct loop *loop) { if (!loop) return; /* Recurse on the inner loops, then on the next (sibling) loops. */ scan_all_loops_r (inner_loop (loop)); scan_all_loops_r (next_loop (loop)); flow_loop_scan (loop, LOOP_EXIT_EDGES); } /* Walk over all the statements, searching for conditional statements. A better way to determine the conditional expressions that are good candidates for elimination would be needed. For the moment systematically search the conditional expressions over the whole function. */ void eliminate_redundant_checks (void) { basic_block bb; block_stmt_iterator bsi; bb = BASIC_BLOCK (0); if (bb && bb->loop_father) { scan_all_loops_r (bb->loop_father); FOR_EACH_BB (bb) { struct loop *loop = bb->loop_father; /* Don't try to prove anything about the loop exit conditions: avoid the block that contains the condition that guards the exit of the loop. */ if (!loop_exit_edges (loop) || edge_source (loop_exit_edge (loop, 0)) == bb) continue; for (bsi = bsi_start (bb); !bsi_end_p (bsi); bsi_next (&bsi)) { tree expr = bsi_stmt (bsi); switch (TREE_CODE (expr)) { case COND_EXPR: try_eliminate_check (expr); break; default: break; } } } } }

**Attachment:
testsuite.tar.gz**

**Attachment:
scev3.diff.gz**

**Follow-Ups**:**Re: [lno] Update the scalar evolutions algorithm***From:*Sebastian Pop

Index Nav: | [Date Index] [Subject Index] [Author Index] [Thread Index] | |
---|---|---|

Message Nav: | [Date Prev] [Date Next] | [Thread Prev] [Thread Next] |