More switches exist for GCC than those documented here, especially
for specific targets. However, their use is not recommended as
they may change code generation in ways that are incompatible with
the Ada run-time library, or can cause inconsistencies between
- -b target
- Compile your program to run on target, which is the name of a
system configuration. You must have a GNAT cross-compiler built if
target is not the same as your host system.
- Load compiler executables (for example,
gnat1, the Ada compiler)
from dir instead of the default location. Only use this switch
when multiple versions of the GNAT compiler are available.
See Options for Directory Search, for further details. You would normally
use the -b or -V switch instead.
- Compile. Always use this switch when compiling Ada programs.
Note: for some other languages when using gcc, notably in
the case of C and C++, it is possible to use
use gcc without a -c switch to
compile and link in one step. In the case of GNAT, you
cannot use this approach, because the binder must be run
and gcc cannot be used to run the GNAT binder.
- Makes the compiler output callgraph information for the program, on a
per-file basis. The information is generated in the VCG format. It can
be decorated with additional, per-node and/or per-edge information, if a
list of comma-separated markers is additionally specified. When the
su marker is specified, the callgraph is decorated with stack usage information; it is equivalent to -fstack-usage. When the da
marker is specified, the callgraph is decorated with information about
dynamically allocated objects.
- Generates SCO (Source Coverage Obligation) information in the ALI file.
This information is used by advanced coverage tools. See unit SCOs
in the compiler sources for details in files scos.ads and
- Generates cross reference information in GLI files for C and C++ sources.
The GLI files have the same syntax as the ALI files for Ada, and can be used
for source navigation in IDEs and on the command line using e.g. gnatxref
and the --ext=gli switch.
- Enables Link Time Optimization. This switch must be used in conjunction
with the traditional -Ox switches and instructs the compiler to
defer most optimizations until the link stage. The advantage of this
approach is that the compiler can do a whole-program analysis and choose
the best interprocedural optimization strategy based on a complete view
of the program, instead of a fragmentary view with the usual approach.
This can also speed up the compilation of huge programs and reduce the
size of the final executable, compared with a per-unit compilation with
full inlining across modules enabled with the -gnatn2 switch.
The drawback of this approach is that it may require much more memory.
The switch, as well as the accompanying -Ox switches, must be
specified both for the compilation and the link phases.
If the n parameter is specified, the optimization and final code
generation at link time are executed using n parallel jobs by
means of an installed make program.
- Suppresses all inlining, even if other optimization or inlining
switches are set. This includes suppression of inlining that
results from the use of the pragma
Any occurrences of pragma
are ignored, and -gnatn and -gnatN have no
effects if this switch is present. Note that inlining can also
be suppressed on a finer-grained basis with pragma
- Suppresses automatic inlining of subprograms, which is enabled
if -O3 is used.
- Suppresses automatic inlining of small subprograms, which is enabled
if -O2 is used.
- Suppresses inlining of subprograms local to the unit and called once
from within it, which is enabled if -O1 is used.
- Suppresses high-level loop induction variable optimizations, which are
enabled if -O1 is used. These optimizations are generally
profitable but, for some specific cases of loops with numerous uses
of the iteration variable that follow a common pattern, they may end
up destroying the regularity that could be exploited at a lower level
and thus producing inferior code.
- Causes the compiler to avoid assumptions regarding non-aliasing
of objects of different types. See
Optimization and Strict Aliasing for details.
- Activates stack checking.
See Stack Overflow Checking for details.
- Makes the compiler output stack usage information for the program, on a
per-subprogram basis. See Static Stack Usage Analysis for details.
- Generate debugging information. This information is stored in the object
file and copied from there to the final executable file by the linker,
where it can be read by the debugger. You must use the
-g switch if you plan on using the debugger.
- Enforce Ada 83 restrictions.
- Enforce Ada 95 restrictions.
- Allow full Ada 2005 features.
- Allow full Ada 2005 features (same as -gnat05)
- Allow full Ada 2012 features (same as -gnat12)
- Assertions enabled.
Pragma Assert and
pragma Debug to be
activated. Note that these pragmas can also be controlled using the
It also activates pragmas
Postcondition. Note that these pragmas can also be controlled
using the configuration pragma
Check_Policy. In Ada 2012, it
also activates all assertions defined in the RM as aspects: preconditions,
postconditions, type invariants and (sub)type predicates. In all Ada modes,
corresponding pragmas for type invariants and (sub)type predicates are
- Avoid processing gnat.adc. If a gnat.adc file is present,
it will be ignored.
- Generate brief messages to stderr even if verbose mode set.
- Assume no invalid (bad) values except for 'Valid attribute use
(see Validity Checking).
- Check syntax and semantics only (no code generation attempted). When the
compiler is invoked by gnatmake, if the switch -gnatc is
only given to the compiler (after -cargs or in package Compiler of
the project file, gnatmake will fail because it will not find the
object file after compilation. If gnatmake is called with
-gnatc as a builder switch (before -cargs or in package
Builder of the project file) then gnatmake will not fail because
it will not look for the object files after compilation, and it will not try
to build and link. This switch may not be given if a previous
switch has been given, since
-gnatR requires that the code generator
be called to complete determination of representation information.
- Generate CodePeer intermediate format (no code generation attempted).
This switch will generate an intermediate representation suitable for
use by CodePeer (.scil files). This switch is not compatible with
code generation (it will, among other things, disable some switches such
as -gnatn, and enable others such as -gnata).
- Specify debug options for the compiler. The string of characters after
the -gnatd specify the specific debug options. The possible
characters are 0-9, a-z, A-Z, optionally preceded by a dot. See
compiler source file debug.adb for details of the implemented
debug options. Certain debug options are relevant to applications
programmers, and these are documented at appropriate points in this
- Create expanded source files for source level debugging. This switch
also suppress generation of cross-reference information
(see -gnatx). Note that this switch is not allowed if a previous
-gnatR switch has been given, since these two switches are not compatible.
- Check that the actual parameters of a subprogram call are not aliases of one
another. To qualify as aliasing, the actuals must denote objects of a composite
type, their memory locations must be identical or overlapping, and at least one
of the corresponding formal parameters must be of mode OUT or IN OUT.
type Rec_Typ is record
Data : Integer := 0;
function Self (Val : Rec_Typ) return Rec_Typ is
procedure Detect_Aliasing (Val_1 : in out Rec_Typ; Val_2 : Rec_Typ) is
Obj : Rec_Typ;
Detect_Aliasing (Obj, Obj);
Detect_Aliasing (Obj, Self (Obj));
In the example above, the first call to
Detect_Aliasing fails with a
Program_Error at runtime because the actuals for
Val_2 denote the same object. The second call executes without raising
an exception because
Self(Obj) produces an anonymous object which does
not share the memory location of
- Specify a configuration pragma file
(the equal sign is optional)
(see The Configuration Pragmas Files).
- Generate CodePeer messages in a compiler-like format. This switch is only
effective if -gnatcC is also specified and requires an installation
- Disable atomic synchronization
- Defines a symbol, associated with value, for preprocessing.
(see Integrated Preprocessing).
- Generate extra information in exception messages. In particular, display
extra column information and the value and range associated with index and
range check failures, and extra column information for access checks.
In cases where the compiler is able to determine at compile time that
a check will fail, it gives a warning, and the extra information is not
produced at run time.
- Display full source path name in brief error messages.
- Check for overflow on all floating-point operations, including those
for unconstrained predefined types. See description of pragma
Check_Float_Overflow in GNAT RM.
- Save result of preprocessing in a text file.
- Set maximum number of instantiations during compilation of a single unit to
nnn. This may be useful in increasing the default maximum of 8000 for
the rare case when a single unit legitimately exceeds this limit.
- Indicates that the source is a multi-unit source and that the index of the
unit to compile is nnn. nnn needs to be a positive number and need
to be a valid index in the multi-unit source.
- This switch can be used with the static elaboration model to issue info
pragma Elaborate and
are generated. This is useful in diagnosing elaboration circularities
caused by these implicit pragmas when using the static elaboration
model. See See the section in this guide on elaboration checking for
further details. These messages are not generated by default, and are
intended only for temporary use when debugging circularity problems.
- This switch turns off the info messages about implicit elaboration pragmas.
- Specify a mapping file
(the equal sign is optional)
(see Units to Sources Mapping Files).
- Specify a preprocessing data file
(the equal sign is optional)
(see Integrated Preprocessing).
- Turn categorization dependency errors into warnings.
Ada requires that units that WITH one another have compatible categories, for
example a Pure unit cannot WITH a Preelaborate unit. If this switch is used,
these errors become warnings (which can be ignored, or suppressed in the usual
manner). This can be useful in some specialized circumstances such as the
temporary use of special test software.
- Synonym of -fdump-scos, kept for backwards compatibility.
- Generate target dependent information. The format of the output file is
described in the section about switch -gnateT.
- Read target dependent information, such as endianness or sizes and alignments
of base type. If this switch is passed, the default target dependent
information of the compiler is replaced by the one read from the input file.
This is used by tools other than the compiler, e.g. to do
semantic analysis of programs that will run on some other target than
the machine on which the tool is run.
The following target dependent values should be defined,
Nat denotes a natural integer value,
Pos denotes a
positive integer value, and fields marked with a question mark are
boolean fields, where a value of 0 is False, and a value of 1 is True:
Bits_BE : Nat; -- Bits stored big-endian?
Bits_Per_Unit : Pos; -- Bits in a storage unit
Bits_Per_Word : Pos; -- Bits in a word
Bytes_BE : Nat; -- Bytes stored big-endian?
Char_Size : Pos; -- Standard.Character'Size
Double_Float_Alignment : Nat; -- Alignment of double float
Double_Scalar_Alignment : Nat; -- Alignment of double length scalar
Double_Size : Pos; -- Standard.Long_Float'Size
Float_Size : Pos; -- Standard.Float'Size
Float_Words_BE : Nat; -- Float words stored big-endian?
Int_Size : Pos; -- Standard.Integer'Size
Long_Double_Size : Pos; -- Standard.Long_Long_Float'Size
Long_Long_Size : Pos; -- Standard.Long_Long_Integer'Size
Long_Size : Pos; -- Standard.Long_Integer'Size
Maximum_Alignment : Pos; -- Maximum permitted alignment
Max_Unaligned_Field : Pos; -- Maximum size for unaligned bit field
Pointer_Size : Pos; -- System.Address'Size
Short_Enums : Nat; -- Short foreign convention enums?
Short_Size : Pos; -- Standard.Short_Integer'Size
Strict_Alignment : Nat; -- Strict alignment?
System_Allocator_Alignment : Nat; -- Alignment for malloc calls
Wchar_T_Size : Pos; -- Interfaces.C.wchar_t'Size
Words_BE : Nat; -- Words stored big-endian?
The format of the input file is as follows. First come the values of
the variables defined above, with one line per value:
name is the name of the parameter, spelled out in full,
and cased as in the above list, and
value is an unsigned decimal
integer. Two or more blanks separates the name from the value.
All the variables must be present, in alphabetical order (i.e. the
same order as the list above).
Then there is a blank line to separate the two parts of the file. Then
come the lines showing the floating-point types to be registered, with
one line per registered mode:
name digs float_rep size alignment
name is the string name of the type (which can have
single spaces embedded in the name (e.g. long double),
the number of digits for the floating-point type,
the float representation (I/V/A for IEEE-754-Binary, Vax_Native,
size is the size in bits,
alignment is the
alignment in bits. The name is followed by at least two blanks, fields
are separated by at least one blank, and a LF character immediately
follows the alignment field.
Here is an example of a target parameterization file:
float 15 I 64 64
double 15 I 64 64
long double 18 I 80 128
TF 33 I 128 128
- Ignore unrecognized validity, warning, and style switches that
appear after this switch is given. This may be useful when
compiling sources developed on a later version of the compiler
with an earlier version. Of course the earlier version must
support this switch.
- Check that all actual parameters of a subprogram call are valid according to
the rules of validity checking (see Validity Checking).
- Ignore all STYLE_CHECKS pragmas. Full legality checks
are still carried out, but the pragmas have no effect
on what style checks are active. This allows all style
checking options to be controlled from the command line.
- Full dynamic elaboration checks.
- Full errors. Multiple errors per line, all undefined references, do not
attempt to suppress cascaded errors.
- Externals names are folded to all uppercase.
- Internal GNAT implementation mode. This should not be used for
applications programs, it is intended only for use by the compiler
and its run-time library. For documentation, see the GNAT sources.
Note that -gnatg implies
so that all standard warnings and all standard style options are turned on.
All warnings and style messages are treated as errors.
- List generated expanded code in source form.
- Output usage information. The output is written to stdout.
- Identifier character set
For details of the possible selections for c,
see Character Set Control.
- Ignore representation clauses. When this switch is used,
representation clauses are treated as comments. This is useful
when initially porting code where you want to ignore rep clause
problems, and also for compiling foreign code (particularly
for use with ASIS). The representation clauses that are ignored
are: enumeration_representation_clause, record_representation_clause,
and attribute_definition_clause for the following attributes:
Address, Alignment, Bit_Order, Component_Size, Machine_Radix,
Object_Size, Size, Small, Stream_Size, and Value_Size.
Note that this option should be used only for compiling – the
code is likely to malfunction at run time.
Note that when
-gnatct is used to generate trees for input
ASIS tools, these representation clauses are removed
from the tree and ignored. This means that the tool will not see them.
- Reformat error messages to fit on nn character lines
- Limit file names to n (1-999) characters (
k = krunch).
- Output full source listing with embedded error messages.
- Used in conjunction with -gnatG or -gnatD to intersperse original
source lines (as comment lines with line numbers) in the expanded
- Limit number of detected error or warning messages to n
where n is in the range 1..999999. The default setting if
no switch is given is 9999. If the number of warnings reaches this
limit, then a message is output and further warnings are suppressed,
but the compilation is continued. If the number of error messages
reaches this limit, then a message is output and the compilation
is abandoned. The equal sign here is optional. A value of zero
means that no limit applies.
- Activate inlining for subprograms for which pragma
specified. This inlining is performed by the GCC back-end. An optional
digit sets the inlining level: 1 for moderate inlining across modules
or 2 for full inlining across modules. If no inlining level is specified,
the compiler will pick it based on the optimization level.
- Activate front end inlining for subprograms for which
Inline is specified. This inlining is performed
by the front end and will be visible in the
When using a gcc-based back end (in practice this means using any version
of GNAT other than the JGNAT, .NET or GNAAMP versions), then the use of
-gnatN is deprecated, and the use of -gnatn is preferred.
Historically front end inlining was more extensive than the gcc back end
inlining, but that is no longer the case.
- Set default mode for handling generation of code to avoid intermediate
arithmetic overflow. Here `
??' is two digits, a
single digit, or nothing. Each digit is one of the digits `
all intermediate overflows checked against base type (
minimize intermediate overflows (
eliminate intermediate overflows (
If only one digit appears then it applies to all
cases; if two digits are given, then the first applies outside
assertions, and the second within assertions.
If no digits follow the -gnato, then it is equivalent to
causing all intermediate overflows to be handled in strict mode.
This switch also causes arithmetic overflow checking to be performed
(as though pragma
Unsuppress (Overflow_Mode) has been specified.
The default if no option -gnato is given is that overflow handling
STRICT mode (computations done using the base type), and that
overflow checking is suppressed.
Note that division by zero is a separate check that is not
controlled by this switch (division by zero checking is on by default).
See also Specifying the Desired Mode.
- Suppress all checks. See Run-Time Checks for details. This switch
has no effect if cancelled by a subsequent -gnat-p switch.
- Cancel effect of previous -gnatp switch.
- Enable polling. This is required on some systems (notably Windows NT) to
obtain asynchronous abort and asynchronous transfer of control capability.
See Pragma Polling, for full
- Don't quit. Try semantics, even if parse errors.
- Don't quit. Generate ALI and tree files even if illegalities.
- Treat pragma Restrictions as Restriction_Warnings.
- Output representation information for declared types and objects.
Note that this switch is not allowed if a previous
-gnatD switch has
been given, since these two switches are not compatible.
- Output convention and parameter passing mechanisms for all subprograms.
- Syntax check only.
- Print package Standard.
- Generate tree output file.
- All compiler tables start at nnn times usual starting size.
- List units for this compilation.
- Tag all error messages with the unique string “error:”
- Verbose mode. Full error output with source lines to stdout.
- Control level of validity checking (see Validity Checking).
- Warning mode where
xxx is a string of option letters that denotes
the exact warnings that
are enabled or disabled (see Warning Message Control).
- Wide character encoding method
- Suppress generation of cross-reference information.
- Enable GNAT implementation extensions and latest Ada version.
- Enable built-in style checks (see Style Checking).
- Distribution stub generation and compilation
(m=r/c for receiver/caller stubs).
- Direct GNAT to search the dir directory for source files needed by
the current compilation
(see Search Paths and the Run-Time Library (RTL)).
- Except for the source file named in the command line, do not look for source
files in the directory containing the source file named in the command line
(see Search Paths and the Run-Time Library (RTL)).
- This standard gcc switch causes the compiler to use larger offsets in its
jump table representation for
This may result in less efficient code, but is sometimes necessary
(for example on HP-UX targets)
in order to compile large and/or nested
- -o file
- This switch is used in gcc to redirect the generated object file
and its associated ALI file. Beware of this switch with GNAT, because it may
cause the object file and ALI file to have different names which in turn
may confuse the binder and the linker.
- Inhibit the search of the default location for the GNAT Run Time
Library (RTL) source files.
- Inhibit the search of the default location for the GNAT Run Time
Library (RTL) ALI files.
- n controls the optimization level.
- n = 0
- No optimization, the default setting if no -O appears
- n = 1
- Normal optimization, the default if you specify -O without
an operand. A good compromise between code quality and compilation
- n = 2
- Extensive optimization, may improve execution time, possibly at the cost of
substantially increased compilation time.
- n = 3
- Same as -O2, and also includes inline expansion for small subprograms
in the same unit.
- n = s
- Optimize space usage
See also Optimization Levels.
- Catch exit codes from the compiler and use the most meaningful as
- Specifies the default location of the runtime library. Same meaning as the
equivalent gnatmake flag (see Switches for gnatmake).
- Used in place of -c to
cause the assembler source file to be
generated, using .s as the extension,
instead of the object file.
This may be useful if you need to examine the generated assembly code.
- Used in conjunction with -S
to cause the generated assembly code file to be annotated with variable
names, making it significantly easier to follow.
- Show commands generated by the gcc driver. Normally used only for
debugging purposes or if you need to be sure what version of the
compiler you are executing.
- -V ver
- Execute ver version of the compiler. This is the gcc
version, not the GNAT version.
- Turn off warnings generated by the back end of the compiler. Use of
this switch also causes the default for front end warnings to be set
to suppress (as though -gnatws had appeared at the start of
You may combine a sequence of GNAT switches into a single switch. For
example, the combined switch
The following restrictions apply to the combination of switches
in this manner: