GCC comes with an implementation of
<stdarg.h> that work without change on machines that pass arguments
on the stack. Other machines require their own implementations of
varargs, and the two machine independent header files must have
conditionals to include it.
<stdarg.h> differs from traditional
<varargs.h> mainly in
the calling convention for
va_start. The traditional
implementation takes just one argument, which is the variable in which
to store the argument pointer. The ISO implementation of
va_start takes an additional second argument. The user is
supposed to write the last named argument of the function here.
va_start should not use this argument. The way to find
the end of the named arguments is with the built-in functions described
Use this built-in function to save the argument registers in memory so
that the varargs mechanism can access them. Both ISO and traditional
va_start must use
TARGET_SETUP_INCOMING_VARARGS (see below) instead.
On some machines,
__builtin_saveregs is open-coded under the
control of the target hook
other machines, it calls a routine written in assembler language,
found in libgcc2.c.
Code generated for the call to
__builtin_saveregs appears at the
beginning of the function, as opposed to where the call to
__builtin_saveregs is written, regardless of what the code is.
This is because the registers must be saved before the function starts
to use them for its own purposes.
This builtin returns the address of the first anonymous stack
argument, as type
void *. If
returns the address of the location above the first anonymous stack
argument. Use it in
va_start to initialize the pointer for
fetching arguments from the stack. Also use it in
verify that the second parameter lastarg is the last named argument
of the current function.
Since each machine has its own conventions for which data types are
passed in which kind of register, your implementation of
has to embody these conventions. The easiest way to categorize the
specified data type is to use
__builtin_classify_type ignores the value of object,
considering only its data type. It returns an integer describing what
kind of type that is—integer, floating, pointer, structure, and so on.
The file typeclass.h defines an enumeration that you can use to
interpret the values of
These machine description macros help implement varargs:
If defined, this hook produces the machine-specific code for a call to
__builtin_saveregs. This code will be moved to the very
beginning of the function, before any parameter access are made. The
return value of this function should be an RTX that contains the value
to use as the return of
This target hook offers an alternative to using
__builtin_saveregs and defining the hook
TARGET_EXPAND_BUILTIN_SAVEREGS. Use it to store the anonymous
register arguments into the stack so that all the arguments appear to
have been passed consecutively on the stack. Once this is done, you can
use the standard implementation of varargs that works for machines that
pass all their arguments on the stack.
The argument args_so_far points to the
structure, containing the values that are obtained after processing the
named arguments. The argument arg describes the last of these named
The target hook should do two things: first, push onto the stack all the
argument registers not used for the named arguments, and second,
store the size of the data thus pushed into the
variable pointed to by pretend_args_size. The value that you
store here will serve as additional offset for setting up the stack
Because you must generate code to push the anonymous arguments at
compile time without knowing their data types,
TARGET_SETUP_INCOMING_VARARGS is only useful on machines that
have just a single category of argument register and use it uniformly
for all data types.
If the argument second_time is nonzero, it means that the
arguments of the function are being analyzed for the second time. This
happens for an inline function, which is not actually compiled until the
end of the source file. The hook
not generate any instructions in this case.
Define this hook to return
true if the location where a function
argument is passed depends on whether or not it is a named argument.
This hook controls how the named argument to
is set for varargs and stdarg functions. If this hook returns
true, the named argument is always true for named
arguments, and false for unnamed arguments. If it returns
then all arguments are treated as named. Otherwise, all named arguments
except the last are treated as named.
You need not define this hook if it always returns
While generating RTL for a function call, this target hook is invoked once
for each argument passed to the function, either a register returned by
TARGET_FUNCTION_ARG or a memory location. It is called just
before the point where argument registers are stored. The type of the
function to be called is also passed as the second argument; it is
NULL_TREE for libcalls. The
TARGET_END_CALL_ARGS hook is
invoked just after the code to copy the return reg has been emitted.
This functionality can be used to perform special setup of call argument
registers if a target needs it.
For functions without arguments, the hook is called once with
passed instead of an argument register.
Most ports do not need to implement anything for this hook.
This target hook is invoked while generating RTL for a function call, just after the point where the return reg is copied into a pseudo. It signals that all the call argument and return registers for the just emitted call are now no longer in use. Most ports do not need to implement anything for this hook.
If you need to conditionally change ABIs so that one works with
TARGET_SETUP_INCOMING_VARARGS, but the other works like neither
defined, then define this hook to return
TARGET_SETUP_INCOMING_VARARGS is used,
Otherwise, you should not define this hook.