The instruction scheduler may need a fair amount of machine-specific adjustment in order to produce good code. GCC provides several target hooks for this purpose. It is usually enough to define just a few of them: try the first ones in this list first.
This hook returns the maximum number of instructions that can ever issue at the same time on the target machine. The default is one. Although the insn scheduler can define itself the possibility of issue an insn on the same cycle, the value can serve as an additional constraint to issue insns on the same simulated processor cycle (see hooks ‘TARGET_SCHED_REORDER’ and ‘TARGET_SCHED_REORDER2’). This value must be constant over the entire compilation. If you need it to vary depending on what the instructions are, you must use ‘TARGET_SCHED_VARIABLE_ISSUE’.
This hook is executed by the scheduler after it has scheduled an insn
from the ready list. It should return the number of insns which can
still be issued in the current cycle. The default is
‘more - 1’ for insns other than
USE, which normally are not counted against the issue rate.
You should define this hook if some insns take more machine resources
than others, so that fewer insns can follow them in the same cycle.
file is either a null pointer, or a stdio stream to write any
debug output to. verbose is the verbose level provided by
-fsched-verbose-n. insn is the instruction that
This function corrects the value of cost based on the relationship between insn and dep_insn through a dependence of type dep_type, and strength dw. It should return the new value. The default is to make no adjustment to cost. This can be used for example to specify to the scheduler using the traditional pipeline description that an output- or anti-dependence does not incur the same cost as a data-dependence. If the scheduler using the automaton based pipeline description, the cost of anti-dependence is zero and the cost of output-dependence is maximum of one and the difference of latency times of the first and the second insns. If these values are not acceptable, you could use the hook to modify them too. See also see Processor pipeline description.
This hook adjusts the integer scheduling priority priority of insn. It should return the new priority. Increase the priority to execute insn earlier, reduce the priority to execute insn later. Do not define this hook if you do not need to adjust the scheduling priorities of insns.
This hook is executed by the scheduler after it has scheduled the ready
list, to allow the machine description to reorder it (for example to
combine two small instructions together on ‘VLIW’ machines).
file is either a null pointer, or a stdio stream to write any
debug output to. verbose is the verbose level provided by
-fsched-verbose-n. ready is a pointer to the ready
list of instructions that are ready to be scheduled. n_readyp is
a pointer to the number of elements in the ready list. The scheduler
reads the ready list in reverse order, starting with
ready[*n_readyp - 1] and going to ready. clock
is the timer tick of the scheduler. You may modify the ready list and
the number of ready insns. The return value is the number of insns that
can issue this cycle; normally this is just
issue_rate. See also
Like ‘TARGET_SCHED_REORDER’, but called at a different time. That function is called whenever the scheduler starts a new cycle. This one is called once per iteration over a cycle, immediately after ‘TARGET_SCHED_VARIABLE_ISSUE’; it can reorder the ready list and return the number of insns to be scheduled in the same cycle. Defining this hook can be useful if there are frequent situations where scheduling one insn causes other insns to become ready in the same cycle. These other insns can then be taken into account properly.
This hook is used to check whether target platform supports macro fusion.
This hook is used to check whether two insns should be macro fused for a target microarchitecture. If this hook returns true for the given insn pair (prev and curr), the scheduler will put them into a sched group, and they will not be scheduled apart. The two insns will be either two SET insns or a compare and a conditional jump and this hook should validate any dependencies needed to fuse the two insns together.
This hook is called after evaluation forward dependencies of insns in chain given by two parameter values (head and tail correspondingly) but before insns scheduling of the insn chain. For example, it can be used for better insn classification if it requires analysis of dependencies. This hook can use backward and forward dependencies of the insn scheduler because they are already calculated.
This hook is executed by the scheduler at the beginning of each block of instructions that are to be scheduled. file is either a null pointer, or a stdio stream to write any debug output to. verbose is the verbose level provided by -fsched-verbose-n. max_ready is the maximum number of insns in the current scheduling region that can be live at the same time. This can be used to allocate scratch space if it is needed, e.g. by ‘TARGET_SCHED_REORDER’.
This hook is executed by the scheduler at the end of each block of instructions that are to be scheduled. It can be used to perform cleanup of any actions done by the other scheduling hooks. file is either a null pointer, or a stdio stream to write any debug output to. verbose is the verbose level provided by -fsched-verbose-n.
This hook is executed by the scheduler after function level initializations. file is either a null pointer, or a stdio stream to write any debug output to. verbose is the verbose level provided by -fsched-verbose-n. old_max_uid is the maximum insn uid when scheduling begins.
This is the cleanup hook corresponding to
file is either a null pointer, or a stdio stream to write any debug output to.
verbose is the verbose level provided by -fsched-verbose-n.
The hook returns an RTL insn. The automaton state used in the pipeline hazard recognizer is changed as if the insn were scheduled when the new simulated processor cycle starts. Usage of the hook may simplify the automaton pipeline description for some VLIW processors. If the hook is defined, it is used only for the automaton based pipeline description. The default is not to change the state when the new simulated processor cycle starts.
The hook can be used to initialize data used by the previous hook.
The hook is analogous to ‘TARGET_SCHED_DFA_PRE_CYCLE_INSN’ but used to changed the state as if the insn were scheduled when the new simulated processor cycle finishes.
The hook is analogous to ‘TARGET_SCHED_INIT_DFA_PRE_CYCLE_INSN’ but used to initialize data used by the previous hook.
The hook to notify target that the current simulated cycle is about to finish. The hook is analogous to ‘TARGET_SCHED_DFA_PRE_CYCLE_INSN’ but used to change the state in more complicated situations - e.g., when advancing state on a single insn is not enough.
The hook to notify target that new simulated cycle has just started. The hook is analogous to ‘TARGET_SCHED_DFA_POST_CYCLE_INSN’ but used to change the state in more complicated situations - e.g., when advancing state on a single insn is not enough.
This hook controls better choosing an insn from the ready insn queue for the DFA-based insn scheduler. Usually the scheduler chooses the first insn from the queue. If the hook returns a positive value, an additional scheduler code tries all permutations of ‘TARGET_SCHED_FIRST_CYCLE_MULTIPASS_DFA_LOOKAHEAD ()’ subsequent ready insns to choose an insn whose issue will result in maximal number of issued insns on the same cycle. For the VLIW processor, the code could actually solve the problem of packing simple insns into the VLIW insn. Of course, if the rules of VLIW packing are described in the automaton.
This code also could be used for superscalar RISC processors. Let us consider a superscalar RISC processor with 3 pipelines. Some insns can be executed in pipelines A or B, some insns can be executed only in pipelines B or C, and one insn can be executed in pipeline B. The processor may issue the 1st insn into A and the 2nd one into B. In this case, the 3rd insn will wait for freeing B until the next cycle. If the scheduler issues the 3rd insn the first, the processor could issue all 3 insns per cycle.
Actually this code demonstrates advantages of the automaton based pipeline hazard recognizer. We try quickly and easy many insn schedules to choose the best one.
The default is no multipass scheduling.
This hook controls what insns from the ready insn queue will be considered for the multipass insn scheduling. If the hook returns zero for insn, the insn will be considered in multipass scheduling. Positive return values will remove insn from consideration on the current round of multipass scheduling. Negative return values will remove insn from consideration for given number of cycles. Backends should be careful about returning non-zero for highest priority instruction at position 0 in the ready list. ready_index is passed to allow backends make correct judgements.
The default is that any ready insns can be chosen to be issued.
This hook prepares the target backend for a new round of multipass scheduling.
This hook is called when multipass scheduling evaluates instruction INSN.
This is called when multipass scheduling backtracks from evaluation of an instruction.
This hook notifies the target about the result of the concluded current round of multipass scheduling.
This hook initializes target-specific data used in multipass scheduling.
This hook finalizes target-specific data used in multipass scheduling.
This hook is called by the insn scheduler before issuing insn on cycle clock. If the hook returns nonzero, insn is not issued on this processor cycle. Instead, the processor cycle is advanced. If *sort_p is zero, the insn ready queue is not sorted on the new cycle start as usually. dump and verbose specify the file and verbosity level to use for debugging output. last_clock and clock are, respectively, the processor cycle on which the previous insn has been issued, and the current processor cycle.
This hook is used to define which dependences are considered costly by
the target, so costly that it is not advisable to schedule the insns that
are involved in the dependence too close to one another. The parameters
to this hook are as follows: The first parameter _dep is the dependence
being evaluated. The second parameter cost is the cost of the
dependence as estimated by the scheduler, and the third
parameter distance is the distance in cycles between the two insns.
The hook returns
true if considering the distance between the two
insns the dependence between them is considered costly by the target,
Defining this hook can be useful in multiple-issue out-of-order machines, where (a) it’s practically hopeless to predict the actual data/resource delays, however: (b) there’s a better chance to predict the actual grouping that will be formed, and (c) correctly emulating the grouping can be very important. In such targets one may want to allow issuing dependent insns closer to one another—i.e., closer than the dependence distance; however, not in cases of “costly dependences”, which this hooks allows to define.
This hook is called by the insn scheduler after emitting a new instruction to the instruction stream. The hook notifies a target backend to extend its per instruction data structures.
Return a pointer to a store large enough to hold target scheduling context.
Initialize store pointed to by tc to hold target scheduling context. It clean_p is true then initialize tc as if scheduler is at the beginning of the block. Otherwise, copy the current context into tc.
Copy target scheduling context pointed to by tc to the current context.
Deallocate internal data in target scheduling context pointed to by tc.
Deallocate a store for target scheduling context pointed to by tc.
This hook is called by the insn scheduler when insn has only speculative dependencies and therefore can be scheduled speculatively. The hook is used to check if the pattern of insn has a speculative version and, in case of successful check, to generate that speculative pattern. The hook should return 1, if the instruction has a speculative form, or -1, if it doesn’t. request describes the type of requested speculation. If the return value equals 1 then new_pat is assigned the generated speculative pattern.
This hook is called by the insn scheduler during generation of recovery code
for insn. It should return
true, if the corresponding check
instruction should branch to recovery code, or
This hook is called by the insn scheduler to generate a pattern for recovery check instruction. If mutate_p is zero, then insn is a speculative instruction for which the check should be generated. label is either a label of a basic block, where recovery code should be emitted, or a null pointer, when requested check doesn’t branch to recovery code (a simple check). If mutate_p is nonzero, then a pattern for a branchy check corresponding to a simple check denoted by insn should be generated. In this case label can’t be null.
This hook is used by the insn scheduler to find out what features should be enabled/used. The structure *spec_info should be filled in by the target. The structure describes speculation types that can be used in the scheduler.
Some instructions should never be speculated by the schedulers, usually
because the instruction is too expensive to get this wrong. Often such
instructions have long latency, and often they are not fully modeled in the
pipeline descriptions. This hook should return
false if insn
should not be speculated.
This hook is called by the swing modulo scheduler to calculate a resource-based lower bound which is based on the resources available in the machine and the resources required by each instruction. The target backend can use g to calculate such bound. A very simple lower bound will be used in case this hook is not implemented: the total number of instructions divided by the issue rate.
This hook is called by Haifa Scheduler. It returns true if dispatch scheduling is supported in hardware and the condition specified in the parameter is true.
This hook is called by Haifa Scheduler. It performs the operation specified in its second parameter.
True if the processor has an exposed pipeline, which means that not just the order of instructions is important for correctness when scheduling, but also the latencies of operations.
This hook is called by tree reassociator to determine a level of parallelism required in output calculations chain.
This hook is called by scheduling fusion pass. It calculates fusion priorities for each instruction passed in by parameter. The priorities are returned via pointer parameters.
insn is the instruction whose priorities need to be calculated. max_pri is the maximum priority can be returned in any cases. fusion_pri is the pointer parameter through which insn’s fusion priority should be calculated and returned. pri is the pointer parameter through which insn’s priority should be calculated and returned.
Same fusion_pri should be returned for instructions which should be scheduled together. Different pri should be returned for instructions with same fusion_pri. fusion_pri is the major sort key, pri is the minor sort key. All instructions will be scheduled according to the two priorities. All priorities calculated should be between 0 (exclusive) and max_pri (inclusive). To avoid false dependencies, fusion_pri of instructions which need to be scheduled together should be smaller than fusion_pri of irrelevant instructions.
Given below example:
ldr r10, [r1, 4] add r4, r4, r10 ldr r15, [r2, 8] sub r5, r5, r15 ldr r11, [r1, 0] add r4, r4, r11 ldr r16, [r2, 12] sub r5, r5, r16
On targets like ARM/AArch64, the two pairs of consecutive loads should be merged. Since peephole2 pass can’t help in this case unless consecutive loads are actually next to each other in instruction flow. That’s where this scheduling fusion pass works. This hook calculates priority for each instruction based on its fustion type, like:
ldr r10, [r1, 4] ; fusion_pri=99, pri=96 add r4, r4, r10 ; fusion_pri=100, pri=100 ldr r15, [r2, 8] ; fusion_pri=98, pri=92 sub r5, r5, r15 ; fusion_pri=100, pri=100 ldr r11, [r1, 0] ; fusion_pri=99, pri=100 add r4, r4, r11 ; fusion_pri=100, pri=100 ldr r16, [r2, 12] ; fusion_pri=98, pri=88 sub r5, r5, r16 ; fusion_pri=100, pri=100
Scheduling fusion pass then sorts all ready to issue instructions according to the priorities. As a result, instructions of same fusion type will be pushed together in instruction flow, like:
ldr r11, [r1, 0] ldr r10, [r1, 4] ldr r15, [r2, 8] ldr r16, [r2, 12] add r4, r4, r10 sub r5, r5, r15 add r4, r4, r11 sub r5, r5, r16
Now peephole2 pass can simply merge the two pairs of loads.
Since scheduling fusion pass relies on peephole2 to do real fusion work, it is only enabled by default when peephole2 is in effect.
This is firstly introduced on ARM/AArch64 targets, please refer to the hook implementation for how different fusion types are supported.
Define this hook for enabling divmod transform if the port does not have hardware divmod insn but defines target-specific divmod libfuncs.