gcovwith GCC Optimization
If you plan to use
gcov to help optimize your code, you must
first compile your program with two special GCC options:
‘-fprofile-arcs -ftest-coverage’. Aside from that, you can use any
other GCC options; but if you want to prove that every single line
in your program was executed, you should not compile with optimization
at the same time. On some machines the optimizer can eliminate some
simple code lines by combining them with other lines. For example, code
if (a != b) c = 1; else c = 0;
can be compiled into one instruction on some machines. In this case,
there is no way for
gcov to calculate separate execution counts
for each line because there isn’t separate code for each line. Hence
gcov output looks like this if you compiled the program with
100: 12:if (a != b) 100: 13: c = 1; 100: 14:else 100: 15: c = 0;
The output shows that this block of code, combined by optimization, executed 100 times. In one sense this result is correct, because there was only one instruction representing all four of these lines. However, the output does not indicate how many times the result was 0 and how many times the result was 1.
Inlineable functions can create unexpected line counts. Line counts are shown for the source code of the inlineable function, but what is shown depends on where the function is inlined, or if it is not inlined at all.
If the function is not inlined, the compiler must emit an out of line copy of the function, in any object file that needs it. If fileA.o and fileB.o both contain out of line bodies of a particular inlineable function, they will also both contain coverage counts for that function. When fileA.o and fileB.o are linked together, the linker will, on many systems, select one of those out of line bodies for all calls to that function, and remove or ignore the other. Unfortunately, it will not remove the coverage counters for the unused function body. Hence when instrumented, all but one use of that function will show zero counts.
If the function is inlined in several places, the block structure in each location might not be the same. For instance, a condition might now be calculable at compile time in some instances. Because the coverage of all the uses of the inline function will be shown for the same source lines, the line counts themselves might seem inconsistent.
Long-running applications can use the
facilities to restrict profile collection to the program region of
__gcov_reset(void) will clear all profile counters
to zero, and calling
__gcov_dump(void) will cause the profile information
collected at that point to be dumped to .gcda output files.
Instrumented applications use a static destructor with priority 99
to invoke the
__gcov_dump function. Thus
is executed after all user defined static destructors,
as well as handlers registered with
If an executable loads a dynamic shared object via dlopen functionality,
-Wl,--dynamic-list-data is needed to dump all profile data.
Profiling run-time library reports various errors related to profile manipulation and profile saving. Errors are printed into standard error output or ‘GCOV_ERROR_FILE’ file, if environment variable is used. In order to terminate immediately after an errors occurs set ‘GCOV_EXIT_AT_ERROR’ environment variable. That can help users to find profile clashing which leads to a misleading profile.