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Each language subdirectory contains a file. In addition the main directory contains, which contains limited information for the C language. This file is a shell script that may define some variables describing the language:

This definition must be present, and gives the name of the language for some purposes such as arguments to --enable-languages.
If defined, this variable lists (space-separated) language front ends other than C that this front end requires to be enabled (with the names given being their language settings). For example, the Java front end depends on the C++ front end, so sets `lang_requires=c++'.
If defined, this variable lists (space-separated) targets in the top level Makefile to build the runtime libraries for this language, such as target-libobjc.
If defined, this variable lists (space-separated) top level directories (parallel to gcc), apart from the runtime libraries, that should not be configured if this front end is not built.
If defined to `no', this language front end is not built unless enabled in a --enable-languages argument. Otherwise, front ends are built by default, subject to any special logic in (as is present to disable the Ada front end if the Ada compiler is not already installed).
If defined to `yes', this front end is built in stage 1 of the bootstrap. This is only relevant to front ends written in their own languages.
If defined, a space-separated list of compiler executables that will be run by the driver. The names here will each end with `\$(exeext)'.
If defined, a space-separated list of files that should be moved to the stagen directories in each stage of bootstrap.
If defined, a space-separated list of files that should be generated by configure substituting values in them. This mechanism can be used to create a file language/Makefile from language/, but this is deprecated, building everything from the single gcc/Makefile is preferred.
If defined, a space-separated list of files that should be scanned by gengtype.c to generate the garbage collection tables and routines for this language. This excludes the files that are common to all front ends. See Type Information.