Node: Alternate Entry Points, Next: Alternate Returns, Previous: Adjustable Arrays, Up: Debugging and Interfacing
The GBE does not understand the general concept of
alternate entry points as Fortran provides via the ENTRY statement.
g77 gets around this by using an approach to compiling procedures
having at least one
ENTRY statement that is almost identical to the
approach used by
(An alternate approach could be used that
would probably generate faster, but larger, code that would also
be a bit easier to debug.)
Information on how
ENTRY is provided for those
trying to debug such code.
The choice of implementation seems
unlikely to affect code (compiled in other languages) that interfaces
to such code.
g77 compiles exactly one public procedure for the primary entry
point of a procedure plus each
ENTRY point it specifies, as usual.
That is, in terms of the public interface, there is no difference
SUBROUTINE X END SUBROUTINE Y END
SUBROUTINE X ENTRY Y END
The difference between the above two cases lies in the code compiled
Y procedures themselves, plus the fact that,
for the second case, an extra internal procedure is compiled.
For every Fortran procedure with at least one
g77 compiles an extra procedure
, where x is
the name of the primary entry point (which, in the above case,
using the standard compiler options, would be
x_ in C).
This extra procedure is compiled as a private procedure--that is, a procedure not accessible by name to separately compiled modules. It contains all the code in the program unit, including the code for the primary entry point plus for every entry point. (The code for each public procedure is quite short, and explained later.)
The extra procedure has some other interesting characteristics.
The argument list for this procedure is invented by
a single integer argument named
passed by value (as in Fortran's
%VAL() intrinsic), specifying the
entry point index--0 for the primary entry point, 1 for the
first entry point (the first
ENTRY statement encountered), 2 for
the second entry point, and so on.
It also contains, for functions returning
-ff2c is in effect)
and for functions returning different types among the
ENTRY statements (e.g.
REAL FUNCTION R()
ENTRY I()), an argument named
is expected at run time to contain a pointer to where to store
the result of the entry point.
CHARACTER functions, this
storage area is an array of the appropriate number of characters;
COMPLEX functions, it is the appropriate area for the return
type; for multiple-return-type functions, it is a union of all the supported return
types (which cannot include
CHARACTER, since combining
CHARACTER return types via
ENTRY in a single function
is not supported by
CHARACTER functions, the
__g77_result argument is followed
by yet another argument named
__g77_length that, at run time,
specifies the caller's expected length of the returned value.
Note that only
CHARACTER*(*) functions and entry points actually
make use of this argument, even though it is always passed by
all callers of public
CHARACTER functions (since the caller does not
generally know whether such a function is
CHARACTER*(*) or whether
there are any other callers that don't have that information).
The rest of the argument list is the union of all the arguments
specified for all the entry points (in their usual forms, e.g.
CHARACTER arguments have extra length arguments, all appended at
the end of this list).
This is considered the "master list" of
The code for this procedure has, before the code for the first executable statement, code much like that for the following Fortran statement:
GOTO (100000,100001,100002), __g77_which_entrypoint 100000 ...code for primary entry point... 100001 ...code immediately following first ENTRY statement... 100002 ...code immediately following second ENTRY statement...
(Note that invalid Fortran statement labels and variable names
are used in the above example to highlight the fact that it
represents code generated by the
g77 internals, not code to be
written by the user.)
It is this code that, when the procedure is called, picks which entry point to start executing.
Getting back to the public procedures (
Y in the original
example), those procedures are fairly simple.
are just like they would be if they were self-contained procedures
ENTRY), of course, since that is what the callers
Their code consists of simply calling the private
procedure, described above, with the appropriate extra arguments
(the entry point index, and perhaps a pointer to a multiple-type-
return variable, local to the public procedure, that contains
all the supported returnable non-character types).
that are not listed for a given entry point that are listed for
other entry points, and therefore that are in the "master list"
for the private procedure, null pointers (in C, the
Also, for entry points that are part of a multiple-type-
returning function, code is compiled after the call of the private
procedure to extract from the multi-type union the appropriate result,
depending on the type of the entry point in question, returning
that result to the original caller.
When debugging a procedure containing alternate entry points, you
can either set a break point on the public procedure itself (e.g.
a break point on
Y) or on the private procedure that
contains most of the pertinent code (e.g.
If you do the former, you should use the debugger's command to
"step into" the called procedure to get to the actual code; with
the latter approach, the break point leaves you right at the
actual code, skipping over the public entry point and its call
to the private procedure (unless you have set a break point there
as well, of course).
Further, the list of dummy arguments that is visible when the private procedure is active is going to be the expanded version of the list for whichever particular entry point is active, as explained above, and the way in which return values are handled might well be different from how they would be handled for an equivalent single-entry function.