Here is a table of the instruction names that are meaningful in the RTL generation pass of the compiler. Giving one of these names to an instruction pattern tells the RTL generation pass that it can use the pattern to accomplish a certain task.
movsimoves full-word data.
If operand 0 is a
subreg with mode m of a register whose
own mode is wider than m, the effect of this instruction is
to store the specified value in the part of the register that corresponds
to mode m. Bits outside of m, but which are within the
same target word as the
subreg are undefined. Bits which are
outside the target word are left unchanged.
This class of patterns is special in several ways. First of all, each
of these names up to and including full word size must be defined,
because there is no other way to copy a datum from one place to another.
If there are patterns accepting operands in larger modes,
must be defined for integer modes of those sizes.
Second, these patterns are not used solely in the RTL generation pass. Even the reload pass can generate move insns to copy values from stack slots into temporary registers. When it does so, one of the operands is a hard register and the other is an operand that can need to be reloaded into a register.
Therefore, when given such a pair of operands, the pattern must generate
RTL which needs no reloading and needs no temporary registers--no
registers other than the operands. For example, if you support the
pattern with a
define_expand, then in such a case the
define_expand mustn't call
force_reg or any other such
function which might generate new pseudo registers.
This requirement exists even for subword modes on a RISC machine where fetching those modes from memory normally requires several insns and some temporary registers.
During reload a memory reference with an invalid address may be passed
as an operand. Such an address will be replaced with a valid address
later in the reload pass. In this case, nothing may be done with the
address except to use it as it stands. If it is copied, it will not be
replaced with a valid address. No attempt should be made to make such
an address into a valid address and no routine (such as
change_address) that will do so may be called. Note that
general_operand will fail when applied to such an address.
The global variable
reload_in_progress (which must be explicitly
declared if required) can be used to determine whether such special
handling is required.
The variety of operands that have reloads depends on the rest of the machine description, but typically on a RISC machine these can only be pseudo registers that did not get hard registers, while on other machines explicit memory references will get optional reloads.
If a scratch register is required to move an object to or from memory,
it can be allocated using
gen_reg_rtx prior to life analysis.
If there are cases which need scratch registers during or after reload,
you must define
SECONDARY_OUTPUT_RELOAD_CLASS to detect them, and provide
them. See Register Classes.
The global variable
no_new_pseudos can be used to determine if it
is unsafe to create new pseudo registers. If this variable is nonzero, then
it is unsafe to call
gen_reg_rtx to allocate a new pseudo.
The constraints on a
must permit moving any hard
register to any other hard register provided that
HARD_REGNO_MODE_OK permits mode m in both registers and
REGISTER_MOVE_COST applied to their classes returns a value of 2.
It is obligatory to support floating point
instructions into and out of any registers that can hold fixed point
values, because unions and structures (which have modes
DImode) can be in those registers and they may have floating
There may also be a need to support fixed point
instructions in and out of floating point registers. Unfortunately, I
have forgotten why this was so, and I don't know whether it is still
HARD_REGNO_MODE_OK rejects fixed point values in
floating point registers, then the constraints of the fixed point
instructions must be designed to avoid ever trying to
reload into a floating point register.
, but used when a scratch register is required to move between operand 0 and operand 1. Operand 2 describes the scratch register. See the discussion of the
SECONDARY_RELOAD_CLASSmacro in see Register Classes.
There are special restrictions on the form of the
used in these patterns. First, only the predicate for the reload
operand is examined, i.e.,
reload_in examines operand 1, but not
the predicates for operand 0 or 2. Second, there may be only one
alternative in the constraints. Third, only a single register class
letter may be used for the constraint; subsequent constraint letters
are ignored. As a special exception, an empty constraint string
ALL_REGS register class. This may relieve ports
of the burden of defining an
ALL_REGS constraint letter just
for these patterns.
except that if operand 0 is a
subregwith mode m of a register whose natural mode is wider, the
instruction is guaranteed not to alter any of the register except the part which belongs to mode m.
Define this only if the target machine really has such an instruction; do not define this if the most efficient way of loading consecutive registers from memory is to do them one at a time.
On some machines, there are restrictions as to which consecutive
registers can be stored into memory, such as particular starting or
ending register numbers or only a range of valid counts. For those
machines, use a
define_expand (see Expander Definitions)
and make the pattern fail if the restrictions are not met.
Write the generated insn as a
parallel with elements being a
set of one register from the appropriate memory location (you may
clobber elements). Use a
match_parallel (see RTL Template) to recognize the insn. See
rs6000.md for examples of the use of this insn
load_multiple, but store several consecutive registers into consecutive memory locations. Operand 0 is the first of the consecutive memory locations, operand 1 is the first register, and operand 2 is a constant: the number of consecutive registers.
PUSH_ROUNDINGis defined. For historical reason, this pattern may be missing and in such case an
movexpander is used instead, with a
MEMexpression forming the push operation. The
movexpander method is deprecated.
HImode, and store a
SImodeproduct in operand 0.
For machines with an instruction that produces both a quotient and a
remainder, provide a pattern for
4 but do not
provide patterns for
allows optimization in the relatively common case when both the quotient
and remainder are computed.
If an instruction that just produces a quotient or just a remainder
exists and is more efficient than the instruction that produces both,
write the output routine of
4 to call
find_reg_note and look for a
REG_UNUSED note on the
quotient or remainder and generate the appropriate instruction.
sqrt built-in function of C always uses the mode which
corresponds to the C data type
ffs built-in function of C always uses the mode which
corresponds to the C data type
(set (cc0) (compare (match_operand:m 0 ...) (match_operand:m 1 ...)))
(set (cc0) (match_operand:m 0 ...))
patterns should not be defined for machines that do
(cc0). Doing so would confuse the optimizer since it
would no longer be clear which
set operations were comparisons.
patterns should be used instead.
The number of bytes to move is the third operand, in mode m.
Usually, you specify
word_mode for m. However, if you can
generate better code knowing the range of valid lengths is smaller than
those representable in a full word, you should provide a pattern with a
mode corresponding to the range of values you can handle efficiently
QImode for values in the range 0-127; note we avoid numbers
that appear negative) and also a pattern with
The fourth operand is the known shared alignment of the source and
destination, in the form of a
const_int rtx. Thus, if the
compiler knows that both source and destination are word-aligned,
it may provide the value 4 for this operand.
Descriptions of multiple
patterns can only be
beneficial if the patterns for smaller modes have fewer restrictions
on their first, second and fourth operands. Note that the mode m
does not impose any restriction on the mode of
individually moved data units in the block.
These patterns need not give special consideration to the possibility
that the source and destination strings might overlap.
Pmode. The number of bytes to clear is the second operand, in mode m. See
for a discussion of the choice of mode.
The third operand is the known alignment of the destination, in the form
const_int rtx. Thus, if the compiler knows that the
destination is word-aligned, it may provide the value 4 for this
The use for multiple
is as for
. The two memory blocks specified are compared byte by byte in lexicographic order. The effect of the instruction is to store a value in operand 0 whose sign indicates the result of the comparison.
memreferring to the first character of the string, operand 2 is the character to search for (normally zero), and operand 3 is a constant describing the known alignment of the beginning of the string.
2but works for any floating point value of mode m by converting the value to an integer.
2but works for any floating point value of mode m by converting the value to an integer.
word_mode. Operand 1 may have mode
word_modeis allowed only for registers. Operands 2 and 3 must be valid for
The RTL generation pass generates this instruction only with constants for operands 2 and 3.
The bit-field value is sign-extended to a full word integer
before it is stored in operand 0.
extvexcept that the bit-field value is zero-extended.
word_mode) into a bit-field in operand 0, where operand 1 specifies the width in bits and operand 2 the starting bit. Operand 0 may have mode
word_modeis allowed only for registers. Operands 1 and 2 must be valid for
The RTL generation pass generates this instruction only with constants
for operands 1 and 2.
The mode of the operands being compared need not be the same as the operands being moved. Some machines, sparc64 for example, have instructions that conditionally move an integer value based on the floating point condition codes and vice versa.
If the machine does not have conditional move instructions, do not
define these patterns.
You specify the mode that the operand must have when you write the
match_operand expression. The compiler automatically sees
which mode you have used and supplies an operand of that mode.
The value stored for a true condition must have 1 as its low bit, or
else must be negative. Otherwise the instruction is not suitable and
you should omit it from the machine description. You describe to the
compiler exactly which value is stored by defining the macro
STORE_FLAG_VALUE (see Misc). If a description cannot be
found that can be used for all the
should omit those operations from the machine description.
These operations may fail, but should do so only in relatively uncommon cases; if they would fail for common cases involving integer comparisons, it is best to omit these patterns.
If these operations are omitted, the compiler will usually generate code
that copies the constant one to the target and branches around an
assignment of zero to the target. If this code is more efficient than
the potential instructions used for the
followed by those required to convert the result into a 1 or a zero in
SImode, you should omit the
the machine description.
label_refthat refers to the label to jump to. Jump if the condition codes meet condition cond.
Some machines do not follow the model assumed here where a comparison
instruction is followed by a conditional branch instruction. In that
) patterns should
simply store the operands away and generate all the required insns in a
define_expand (see Expander Definitions) for the conditional
branch operations. All calls to expand
immediately preceded by calls to expand either a
pattern or a
Machines that use a pseudo register for the condition code value, or where the mode used for the comparison depends on the condition being tested, should also use the above mechanism. See Jump Patterns.
The above discussion also applies to the
label_refof the label to jump to. This pattern name is mandatory on all machines.
const_int; operand 2 is the number of registers used as operands.
On most machines, operand 2 is not actually stored into the RTL pattern. It is supplied for the sake of some RISC machines which need to put this information into the assembler code; they can put it in the RTL instead of operand 1.
Operand 0 should be a
mem RTX whose address is the address of the
function. Note, however, that this address can be a
expression even if it would not be a legitimate memory address on the
target machine. If it is also not a valid argument for a call
instruction, the pattern for this operation should be a
define_expand (see Expander Definitions) that places the
address into a register and uses that register in the call instruction.
callinstruction (but with numbers increased by one).
Subroutines that return
BLKmode objects use the
call_value, except used if defined and if
RETURN_POPS_ARGSis nonzero. They should emit a
parallelthat contains both the function call and a
setto indicate the adjustment made to the frame pointer.
For machines where
RETURN_POPS_ARGS can be nonzero, the use of these
patterns increases the number of functions for which the frame pointer
can be eliminated, if desired.
parallelexpression where each element is a
setexpression that indicates the saving of a function return value into the result block.
This instruction pattern should be defined to support
__builtin_apply on machines where special instructions are needed
to call a subroutine with arbitrary arguments or to save the value
returned. This instruction pattern is required on machines that have
multiple registers that can hold a return value
FUNCTION_VALUE_REGNO_P is true for more than one register).
patterns, this pattern is also used after the
RTL generation phase. In this case it is to support machines where
multiple instructions are usually needed to return from a function, but
some class of functions only requires one instruction to implement a
return. Normally, the applicable functions are those which do not need
to save any registers or allocate stack space.
For such machines, the condition specified in this pattern should only
be true when
reload_completed is nonzero and the function's
epilogue would only be a single instruction. For machines with register
windows, the routine
leaf_function_p may be used to determine if
a register window push is required.
Machines that have conditional return instructions should define patterns such as
(define_insn "" [(set (pc) (if_then_else (match_operator 0 "comparison_operator" [(cc0) (const_int 0)]) (return) (pc)))] "condition" "...")
where condition would normally be the same condition specified on the
__builtin_returnon machines where special instructions are needed to return a value of any type.
Operand 0 is a memory location where the result of calling a function
__builtin_apply is stored; operand 1 is a
expression where each element is a
set expression that indicates
the restoring of a function return value from the result block.
(const_int 0)will do as an RTL pattern.
CASE_DROPS_THROUGHis defined, then an out-of-bounds index drops through to the code following the jump table instead of jumping to this label. In that case, this label is not actually used by the
casesiinstruction, but it is always provided as an operand.)
The table is a
addr_diff_vec inside of a
jump_insn. The number of elements in the table is one plus the
difference between the upper bound and the lower bound.
This pattern requires two operands: the address or offset, and a label
which should immediately precede the jump table. If the macro
CASE_VECTOR_PC_RELATIVE evaluates to a nonzero value then the first
operand is an offset which counts from the address of the table; otherwise,
it is an absolute address to jump to. In either case, the first operand has
tablejump insn is always the last insn before the jump
table it uses. Its assembler code normally has no need to use the
second operand, but you should incorporate it in the RTL pattern so
that the jump optimizer will not delete the table as unreachable code.
This optional instruction pattern is only used by the combiner,
typically for loops reversed by the loop optimizer when strength
reduction is enabled.
const0_rtxif this cannot be determined until run-time; operand 2 is the actual or estimated maximum number of iterations as a
const_int; operand 3 is the number of enclosed loops as a
const_int(an innermost loop has a value of 1); operand 4 is the label to jump to if the register is nonzero. See Looping Patterns.
This optional instruction pattern should be defined for machines with
low-overhead looping instructions as the loop optimizer will try to
modify suitable loops to utilize it. If nested low-overhead looping is
not supported, use a
define_expand (see Expander Definitions)
and make the pattern fail if operand 3 is not
Similarly, if the actual or estimated maximum number of iterations is
too large for this instruction, make it fail.
doloop_endrequired for machines that need to perform some initialization, such as loading special registers used by a low-overhead looping instruction. If initialization insns do not always need to be emitted, use a
define_expand(see Expander Definitions) and make it fail.
Operand 0 is always a
reg and has mode
Pmode; operand 1
may be a
and also has mode
Canonicalization of a function pointer usually involves computing the address of the function which would be called if the function pointer were used in an indirect call.
Only define this pattern if function pointers on the target machine
can have different values but still call the same function when
used in an indirect call.
Pmode. Do not define these patterns on such machines.
Some machines require special handling for stack pointer saves and
restores. On those machines, define the patterns corresponding to the
non-standard cases by using a
define_expand (see Expander Definitions) that produces the required insns. The three types of
saves and restores are:
save_stack_blocksaves the stack pointer at the start of a block that allocates a variable-sized object, and
restore_stack_blockrestores the stack pointer when the block is exited.
restore_stack_functiondo a similar job for the outermost block of a function and are used when the function allocates variable-sized objects or calls
alloca. Only the epilogue uses the restored stack pointer, allowing a simpler save or restore sequence on some machines.
save_stack_nonlocalis used in functions that contain labels branched to by nested functions. It saves the stack pointer in such a way that the inner function can use
restore_stack_nonlocalto restore the stack pointer. The compiler generates code to restore the frame and argument pointer registers, but some machines require saving and restoring additional data such as register window information or stack backchains. Place insns in these patterns to save and restore any such required data.
When saving the stack pointer, operand 0 is the save area and operand 1
is the stack pointer. The mode used to allocate the save area defaults
Pmode but you can override that choice by defining the
STACK_SAVEAREA_MODE macro (see Storage Layout). You must
specify an integral mode, or
VOIDmode if no save area is needed
for a particular type of save (either because no save is needed or
because a machine-specific save area can be used). Operand 0 is the
stack pointer and operand 1 is the save area for restore operations. If
save_stack_block is defined, operand 0 must not be
VOIDmode since these saves can be arbitrarily nested.
A save area is a
mem that is at a constant offset from
virtual_stack_vars_rtx when the stack pointer is saved for use by
nonlocal gotos and a
reg in the other two cases.
STACK_GROWS_DOWNWARDis undefined) operand 1 from the stack pointer to create space for dynamically allocated data.
Store the resultant pointer to this space into operand 0. If you
are allocating space from the main stack, do this by emitting a
move insn to copy
virtual_stack_dynamic_rtx to operand 0.
If you are allocating the space elsewhere, generate code to copy the
location of the space to operand 0. In the latter case, you must
ensure this space gets freed when the corresponding space on the main
stack is free.
Do not define this pattern if all that must be done is the subtraction.
Some machines require other operations such as stack probes or
maintaining the back chain. Define this pattern to emit those
operations in addition to updating the stack pointer.
If you need to emit instructions before the stack has been adjusted,
put them into the
allocate_stack pattern. Otherwise, define
this pattern to emit the required instructions.
No operands are provided.
On most machines you need not define this pattern, since GCC will
already generate the correct code, which is to load the frame pointer
and static chain, restore the stack (using the
restore_stack_nonlocal pattern, if defined), and jump indirectly
to the dispatcher. You need only define this pattern if this code will
not work on your machine.
jmp_buf. You will not normally need to define this pattern. A typical reason why you might need this pattern is if some value, such as a pointer to a global table, must be restored. Though it is preferred that the pointer value be recalculated if possible (given the address of a label for instance). The single argument is a pointer to the
jmp_buf. Note that the buffer is five words long and that the first three are normally used by the generic mechanism.
builtin_setjmp_setup. The single argument is a pointer to the
__builtin_eh_return, and thence the call frame exception handling library routines, are built. It is intended to handle non-trivial actions needed along the abnormal return path.
The pattern takes two arguments. The first is an offset to be applied
to the stack pointer. It will have been copied to some appropriate
EH_RETURN_STACKADJ_RTX) which will survive
until after reload to when the normal epilogue is generated.
The second argument is the address of the exception handler to which
the function should return. This will normally need to copied by the
pattern to some special register or memory location.
This pattern only needs to be defined if call frame exception handling
is to be used, and simple moves involving
EH_RETURN_HANDLER_RTX are not sufficient.
Using a prologue pattern is generally preferred over defining
TARGET_ASM_FUNCTION_PROLOGUE to emit assembly code for the prologue.
prologue pattern is particularly useful for targets which perform
Using an epilogue pattern is generally preferred over defining
TARGET_ASM_FUNCTION_EPILOGUE to emit assembly code for the epilogue.
epilogue pattern is particularly useful for targets which perform
instruction scheduling or which have delay slots for their return instruction.
sibcall_epilogue pattern must not clobber any arguments used for
parameter passing or any stack slots for arguments passed to the current
conditional_trap pattern looks like
(define_insn "conditional_trap" [(trap_if (match_operator 0 "trap_operator" [(cc0) (const_int 0)]) (match_operand 1 "const_int_operand" "i"))] "" "...")
Targets that do not support write prefetches or locality hints can ignore
the values of operands 1 and 2.
const_intthat holds the clock cycle.