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VRP causing extra register usage


Hi,

  When analyzing code size differences between a 4.9.x compiler and
  trunk for the AVR target, I found quite a few cases where extra
  registers were being used to hold smaller types (two 8 bit registers
  for a uint8_t, for example).

  On deeper analysis, I found that the VRP pass (gcc/tree-vrp.c) was the point
  at which the dumps start to diverge.

  For code like this

#include <stdint.h>

uint16_t get(const uint16_t wvalue)
{
  const uint8_t type = (wvalue >> 8);
  uint16_t size = 0;

  if (type == 1)
  {
    size = 20;
  }
  else if (type == 2)
  {
    size = 32;
  }
  return size;
}

  VRP substitutes wvalue for the type variable in the conditionals 
  (simplify_cond_using_ranges:9506), as it figures out that the range 
  of wvalue is the same as a uint8_t). That is, code goes from

<bb 2>:
_3 = wvalue_2(D) >> 8;
type_4 = (const uint8_t) _3;
if (type_4 == 1)
  goto <bb 5>;
else
  goto <bb 3>;

to

<bb 2>:
_3 = wvalue_2(D) >> 8;
type_4 = (const uint8_t) _3;
if (_3 == 1)
  goto <bb 5>;
else
  goto <bb 3>;

  This "widening" causes later passes to allocate extra registers 
  (holding zeros for the extra bits) and generate extra comparisons
  for the AVR target.

  I found that in the 4.9.2 compiler I was benchmarking against, VRP
  didn't figure out the range for wvalue and therefore the folding
  didn't happen, which was why the code was better.

  With the native compiler on my machine (gcc 5.2 x86_64) - replacing 
  uint8_t by uint32_t and uint16_t by uint64_t, and shifting right by 
  32 bits instead of 8 shows the same effect - the generated code uses
  rdi instead of just di to hold the type variable.

  Is this a bug? Should the folding happen only if the type
  conversion was from a smaller type to a bigger one? Or is the backend
  supposed to detect this pattern and deal with it?

Regards
Senthil


details-raw vrp1 dump

;; Function get (get, funcdef_no=0, decl_uid=1522, cgraph_uid=0, symbol_order=0)

;; 1 loops found
;;
;; Loop 0
;;  header 0, latch 1
;;  depth 0, outer -1
;;  nodes: 0 1 2 3 4 5
;; 2 succs { 5 3 }
;; 3 succs { 4 5 }
;; 4 succs { 5 }
;; 5 succs { 1 }

ASSERT_EXPRs to be inserted

Assertions to be inserted for type_4
	if (type_4 == 1)

	BB #3
	EDGE 2->3 2 [55.9%]  (FALSE_VALUE,EXECUTABLE)
	PREDICATE: type_4 ne_expr 1




Updating SSA:
Registering new PHI nodes in block #2
Updating SSA information for statement type_4 = (const uint8_t) _3;
Updating SSA information for statement if (type_4 == 1)
Registering new PHI nodes in block #3
Updating SSA information for statement type_6 = ASSERT_EXPR <type_4, type_4 != 1>;
Updating SSA information for statement if (type_4 == 2)
Registering new PHI nodes in block #4
Registering new PHI nodes in block #5

SSA replacement table
N_i -> { O_1 ... O_j } means that N_i replaces O_1, ..., O_j

type_6 -> { type_4 }
Incremental SSA update started at block: 2
Number of blocks in CFG: 6
Number of blocks to update: 2 ( 33%)
Affected blocks: 2 3



SSA form after inserting ASSERT_EXPRs
get (const uint16_t wvalue, const uint8_t windex, const void * * const address)
{
  uint16_t size;
  const uint8_t type;
  unsigned int _3;

  <bb 2>:
  _3 = wvalue_2(D) >> 8;
  type_4 = (const uint8_t) _3;
  if (type_4 == 1)
    goto <bb 5>;
  else
    goto <bb 3>;

  <bb 3>:
  type_6 = ASSERT_EXPR <type_4, type_4 != 1>;
  if (type_6 == 2)
    goto <bb 4>;
  else
    goto <bb 5>;

  <bb 4>:

  <bb 5>:
  # size_1 = PHI <20(2), 0(3), 32(4)>
  return size_1;

}


Immediate_uses: 

size_1 : --> single use.
return size_1;

wvalue_2(D) : --> single use.
_3 = wvalue_2(D) >> 8;

_3 : --> single use.
type_4 = (const uint8_t) _3;

type_4 : -->3 uses.
type_6 = ASSERT_EXPR <type_4, type_4 != 1>;
type_6 = ASSERT_EXPR <type_4, type_4 != 1>;
if (type_4 == 1)

.MEM_5(D) : --> single use.
# VUSE <.MEM_5(D)>
return size_1;

type_6 : --> single use.
if (type_6 == 2)

Adding destination of edge (0 -> 2) to worklist

Simulating block 2

Visiting statement:
_3 = wvalue_2(D) >> 8;
Intersecting
  [0, 255]
and
  [0, +INF]
to
  [0, 255]
Found new range for _3: [0, 255]
interesting_ssa_edges: adding SSA use in type_4 = (const uint8_t) _3;
marking stmt to be not simulated again

Visiting statement:
type_4 = (const uint8_t) _3;
Found new range for type_4: [0, +INF]
interesting_ssa_edges: adding SSA use in type_6 = ASSERT_EXPR <type_4, type_4 != 1>;
interesting_ssa_edges: adding SSA use in if (type_4 == 1)
marking stmt to be not simulated again

Visiting statement:
if (type_4 == 1)

Visiting conditional with predicate: if (type_4 == 1)

With known ranges
	type_4: [0, +INF]

Predicate evaluates to: DON'T KNOW
Adding destination of edge (2 -> 5) to worklist
Adding destination of edge (2 -> 3) to worklist

Simulating block 3

Visiting statement:
type_6 = ASSERT_EXPR <type_4, type_4 != 1>;
Intersecting
  ~[1, 1]  EQUIVALENCES: { type_4 } (1 elements)
and
  [0, +INF]
to
  ~[1, 1]  EQUIVALENCES: { type_4 } (1 elements)
Found new range for type_6: ~[1, 1]
interesting_ssa_edges: adding SSA use in if (type_6 == 2)
marking stmt to be not simulated again

Visiting statement:
if (type_6 == 2)

Visiting conditional with predicate: if (type_6 == 2)

With known ranges
	type_6: ~[1, 1]  EQUIVALENCES: { type_4 } (1 elements)

Predicate evaluates to: DON'T KNOW
Adding destination of edge (3 -> 4) to worklist

Simulating block 4

Simulating block 5

Visiting PHI node: size_1 = PHI <20(2), 0(3), 32(4)>
    Argument #0 (2 -> 5 executable)
	20: [20, 20]
    Argument #1 (3 -> 5 executable)
	0: [0, 0]
Meeting
  [20, 20]
and
  [0, 0]
to
  [0, 20]
    Argument #2 (4 -> 5 executable)
	32: [32, 32]
Meeting
  [0, 20]
and
  [32, 32]
to
  [0, 32]
Intersecting
  [0, 32]
and
  [0, +INF]
to
  [0, 32]
Found new range for size_1: [0, 32]
interesting_ssa_edges: adding SSA use in return size_1;
marking stmt to be not simulated again

Visiting statement:
return size_1;

Value ranges after VRP:

size_1: [0, 32]
wvalue_2(D): VARYING
_3: [0, 255]
type_4: [0, +INF]
type_6: ~[1, 1]  EQUIVALENCES: { type_4 } (1 elements)



Substituting values and folding statements

Folding statement: _3 = wvalue_2(D) >> 8;
Not folded
Folding statement: type_4 = (const uint8_t) _3;
Not folded
Folding statement: if (type_4 == 1)
Folded into: if (_3 == 1)

Folding statement: if (type_6 == 2)
Not folded
Folding PHI node: size_1 = PHI <20(2), 0(3), 32(4)>
No folding possible
Folding statement: return size_1;
Not folded
get (const uint16_t wvalue, const uint8_t windex, const void * * const address)
{
  uint16_t size;
  const uint8_t type;
  unsigned int _3;

  <bb 2>:
  _3 = wvalue_2(D) >> 8;
  type_4 = (const uint8_t) _3;
  if (_3 == 1)
    goto <bb 5>;
  else
    goto <bb 3>;

  <bb 3>:
  if (type_4 == 2)
    goto <bb 4>;
  else
    goto <bb 5>;

  <bb 4>:

  <bb 5>:
  # size_1 = PHI <20(2), 0(3), 32(4)>
  return size_1;

}




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