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Re: Denormals and underflow control (gradual vs. aburpt) in soft-fp library

On Tue, 23 Sep 2014, Uros Bizjak wrote:

> Hello!
> Joseph, is there any support for underflow control in soft-fp library?
> >From a private correspondence with FX about implementing gfortran IEEE
> support for extended modes, soft-fp that implements 128bit support on
> x86 could read this setting from FPU control registers and handle
> denormals accordingly.

My current series of soft-fp patches pending review on libc-alpha includes 
one for control of handling of *input* subnormals 
<>, because that 
feature is in the kernel version (and David Miller volunteered to help get 
the Linux kernel using the current version of soft-fp, given the features 
from the kernel version added to it 

As in the kernel version, that implementation sets the denormal operand 
exception in this case, although it appears SSE does not do that (so 
further conditioning would need to be added for this to be an accurate x86 
emulation; different architectures do different things in this case).

Neither version has anything to control underflow on *output*.  A 
flush-to-zero mode as on x86 appears to be different in directed rounding 
modes from abruptUnderflow as defined in IEEE 754-2008 (flush-to-zero 
always produces zero, abruptUnderflow can produce the smallest normal 
result depending on the rounding mode).  Such flush-to-zero or 
abruptUnderflow control could of course be implemented; there might be a 
need for further conditions on whether the underflow and inexact exception 
flags are set on flushing to zero (again, there are architecture 

(Note that such underflow control on output, at least in the architecture 
manuals I checked, means underflow when the architecture-specific tininess 
condition is met - not when the rounding result ends up subnormal - so 
it's not possible to implement it with a late check of the rounded result; 
soft-fp would need to check at the point where it decides whether the 
result is tiny.)

I don't know whether you'd want flush-to-zero emulating architecture 
semantics, abruptUnderflow, or both.

(When used on x86 for operations involving binary128, there's also the 
point that only SSE not x87 has such modes, so you'd need to consider when 
it's correct to apply them to binary128 operations - is it appropriate for 
conversions between TFmode and XFmode or not?  Of course applying to all 
operations is easiest and avoids needing the soft-fp conditionals to 
depend on the operation / types involved, or having different 
sfp-machine.h definitions used in different source files.)

Joseph S. Myers

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