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Re: Register Allocation issues with microblaze-elf
On 02/14/2013 02:41 PM, Michael Veksler wrote:
It sounds that your model requires many 0,1 variables. If it is so,
then maybe SAT
is a better choice than ILP.
Yes, it is binary ILP.
As I wrote, I used this approach too. By the way, I used GLPK as it is
pretty good to affect its the solving process (when to stop, what to
consider first, in what order to consider sub-problems and so on).
Although it might be not the fastest open source MILP solver.
But the solver need not be exact. ILP uses branch and bound, which can be
I don't see any progress, ILP solver may be ten times faster but they
still have exponential complexity. I don't know any industrial
compiler which uses exact solver for RA (RA in GCC is even more
complicated as it requires code selection too).
interrupted after some time giving the best solution so far. The best
so far, could be good enough for RA. I have seen huge SAT instances
a fraction of a second. These problems have a very clear structure that
the solver takes advantage of, but why the RA problem should be
As I remember correctly a person who invented this, try to promote it in
I don't how PBQP works with RA, but if it uses branch & bound over
So why ILP/SAT/CSP aren't used in RA? I don't think they will work
much slower thanYou know, some LLVM guys had the same thoughts and as remember they
had PBQP (I tried this too) based RA (they had too many different
RAs) and now they have finished with just a good heursitics RA which
what RA does today ( they will be somewhat slower but not much). I
do believe that
there is a good chance to get much better results from RA with these
then it may have performance issues there.
There are tons of articles about optimal RA (less for optimal insn
I need some help to get a basic model, even a hand-written model for a
I'd like to invest some time into a feasibility check, if someone is
willing to workGood luck with that. I am serious.
with me on modeling the RA problem (or at least several examples,
such as the above).
input to RA just as example (before diving deeper into it). I'd be
happy if you
or somebody else can guide me through. At least, where should I look
source of GCC to figure some of these things out, or where can I find
documentation/papers/presentations on RA and its input data-structure
(and output requirements).
You could start with Goodwin/Wilken or Appel/George ILP approach. Add
choosing insn alternatives (0/1 var for each alternative of each insn
and constraints for using only alternative for each insn). That is
specific for GCC as GCC partially does code selection in RA. That will
define possible sets of registers or memory for pseudos which are
operands of the insn. You can add cost for each alternative (as RTL
insn alternatives can represent different insns with different execution
time) to cost function. If you use Appel/George approach, add
constraints and cost function part for coalescing and
rematerialization. If you want to go further you could add scheduling
problem too because RA and insn scheduling have conflicting goals.
That will be probably most general base problem. Now you can simplify
this model in different ways. But don't simplify it to much as ,for
example, just solving register allocation (assignment) with ILP has no
sense as graph coloring heuristics based on Kempe's criterion of trivial
colorability solves this problem optimally probably in 99% cases.
Please don't forget that even optimal solution can work worse then
heuristics one as ins execution frequency evaluation is approximate.
Some heuristics work very well with uncertain or approximate execution
frequencies. Profile based compilation in some cases is not possible or
very inconvenient. I saw other cases when optimal solution even with
profile based execution frequencies generates worse cade as the model
probably does not take generated memory foot-prints into account.
The following articles (presentations) could help you to understand GCC RA: